Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New strategies against bird flu

21.04.2008
Austrian scientists identify the common mechanism underlying acute respiratory disease syndrome ARDS

The Spanish flu outbreak of 1918 killed between 30 and 50 million people. In the infected patients, the ultimate cause of death was acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This fatal condition is a massive reaction of the body during which the lung becomes severely damaged. ARDS can be induced by various bacterial and viral infections, but also by chemical agents. These could be toxic gases that are inhaled or gastric acid when aspirated. Once ARDS has developed, survival rates drop dramatically. Among patients infected with H5N1 bird flu, about 50 percent die of ARDS.

An international team of scientists has been addressing the underlying disease mechanisms for the past five years. The team involved researchers from leading institutions in Vienna, Stockholm, Cologne, Beijing, Hongkong, and Toronto as well as the US-army at Fort Detrick. The international effort was coordinated by Josef Penninger and Yumiko Imai of the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology (IMBA) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

A first breakthrough came in 2005 when IMBA-scientists identified ACE2 as the essential receptor for SARS virus infections and showed that ACE2 can protect from acute lung failure in disease models (Imai et al. Nature 2005; Kuba et al. Nature Medicine 2005). Based on these data, ACE2 is now under therapeutic development.

... more about:
»ARDS »Imai »TLR4 »acute »common »failure »flu

In a paper published by Cell this week, the authors describe an essential key injury pathway that is operational in multiple lung injuries and directly links oxidative stress to innate immunity. They also report for the first time a common molecular disease pathway explaining how diverse non-infectious and infectious agents such as anthrax, lung plague, SARS, and H5N1 avian influenza may cause severe and often lethal lung failure with similar pathologies.

To identify these pathways, the researchers studied numerous tissue samples from deceased humans and animals. Victims of bird flu and SARS were examined in Hongkong, and the US-army provided samples from animals infected with Anthrax and lung plague. Common to all ARDS samples was the massive amount of oxidation products found within the cells. Based on these findings, the scientists showed that oxidative stress is the common trigger that ultimately leads to lung failure.

To elucidate the entire pathway, Yumiko Imai of IMBA developed several mouse models. She was now able to show that a molecule called TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) is responsible for initiating the critical signalling pathway. TLR4 is displayed at the surface of certain lung cells called macrophages, important players of the body’s immune system. Once activated, TLR4 initiates an entire chain reaction which ends with the fatal failure of the lungs. Surprisingly, mice challenged with inactivated H5N1 avian influenza virus also dveloped the full reaction. On the other hand, mutant mice in which the function of TLR4 was genetically impaired were protected from lung failure in repsonse to the inactivated virus.

Based on these findings, the researchers can now outline a common molecular disease pathway: Microbial or chemical lung pathogens trigger the oxidative stress machinery. Oxidation products are intrepreted as danger-signals by the receptor TLR4. Subsequently, the body’s innate immune system is activated. This defense machinery in turn leads to a chain of reactions with severe and often fatal lung damage as a consequence.

For Yumiko Imai, a Postdoc in Josef Penninger’s team and pediatrician by training, these results are highly satisfying. Her motivation to study ARDS is based on personal experience in over 10 years at a pediatric intensive care unit. „I have seen so many children die from acute lung failure and felt utterly helpless“, Imai says. „ Since we found a common injury pathway, our hopes are high that we may be able to develop a new and innovative strategy for tackling severe lung infections.“

Dr. Heidemarie Hurtl | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http:// www.imba.oeaw.ac.at

Further reports about: ARDS Imai TLR4 acute common failure flu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Plant mothers talk to their embryos via the hormone auxin
17.07.2018 | Institute of Science and Technology Austria

nachricht Barium ruthenate: A high-yield, easy-to-handle perovskite catalyst for the oxidation of sulfides
16.07.2018 | Tokyo Institute of Technology

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Subaru Telescope helps pinpoint origin of ultra-high energy neutrino

16.07.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Barium ruthenate: A high-yield, easy-to-handle perovskite catalyst for the oxidation of sulfides

16.07.2018 | Life Sciences

New research calculates capacity of North American forests to sequester carbon

16.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>