Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Mature B cells reprogrammed to stem-cell-like state

21.04.2008
Fully differentiated cells, can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells

Fully mature, differentiated B cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-stem-cell-like state, without the use of an egg according to a study published in the April 18 issue of Cell.

In previous research, induced pluripotent stem (IPS) cells have been created from fibroblasts, a specific type of skin cells that may differentiate into other types of skin cells. Because there is no way to tell if the fibroblasts were fully differentiated, the cells used in earlier experiments may have been less differentiated and therefore easier to convert to the embryonic-stem-cell-like state of IPS cells.

B cells are immune cells that can bind to specific antigens, such as proteins from bacteria, viruses or microorganisms. Unlike fibroblasts, mature B cells have a specific part of their DNA cut out as a final maturation step. “Once that piece of DNA is cut out, it can’t come back,” says Jacob Hanna, first author on the paper and a postdoctoral fellow in Whitehead Member Rudolf Jaenisch’s lab. “Checking the genome give us a way to make sure the resulting IPS cells were not from immature cells.”

Hanna and his colleagues began the experiment by generating IPS cells from immature B cells. Similar to the process used to create IPS cells from fibroblast cells, Hanna successfully reprogrammed the immature B cells into IPS cells by using retroviruses to transfer four genes (Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4) into the cells’ DNA.

However, an additional factor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding-protein-á (C/EBPá), was needed to nudge mature B cells to be reprogrammed as IPS cells.

Like IPS cells from earlier fibroblast studies, the IPS cells from both the mature and immature B cells could be used to create mice. The mice grown from the reprogrammed mature B cells were missing the same part of their DNA as the mature B cells, demonstrating that Hanna and his colleagues had successfully reprogrammed fully differentiated cells.

In addition to demonstrating the power of reprogramming, this work offers the promise of powerful new mouse models for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes, in which the body attacks certain types of its own cells. For example, mature B or T cells specific for nerve cells called glia could be reprogrammed to IPS cells and then used to create mice with an entire immune system that is primed to only attack the glia cells, thereby creating a mouse model for studying multiple sclerosis.

Eventually, researchers will be able to study diseases by following a similar process with human cells, predicts Jaenisch, who is also a professor of biology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “In principle, this will allow you to transfer a complex genetic human disease into a Petri dish, and study it,” he says. “That could be the first step to analyze the disease and to define a therapy.”

Cristin Carr | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wi.mit.edu

Further reports about: B cells DNA Fibroblast IPS differentiated immature reprogrammed

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht AI-driven single blood cell classification: New method to support physicians in leukemia diagnostics
13.11.2019 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Small RNAs link immune system and brain cells
13.11.2019 | Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New Pitt research finds carbon nanotubes show a love/hate relationship with water

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are valuable for a wide variety of applications. Made of graphene sheets rolled into tubes 10,000 times smaller than a human hair, CNTs have an exceptional strength-to-mass ratio and excellent thermal and electrical properties. These features make them ideal for a range of applications, including supercapacitors, interconnects, adhesives, particle trapping and structural color.

New research reveals even more potential for CNTs: as a coating, they can both repel and hold water in place, a useful property for applications like printing,...

Im Focus: Magnets for the second dimension

If you've ever tried to put several really strong, small cube magnets right next to each other on a magnetic board, you'll know that you just can't do it. What happens is that the magnets always arrange themselves in a column sticking out vertically from the magnetic board. Moreover, it's almost impossible to join several rows of these magnets together to form a flat surface. That's because magnets are dipolar. Equal poles repel each other, with the north pole of one magnet always attaching itself to the south pole of another and vice versa. This explains why they form a column with all the magnets aligned the same way.

Now, scientists at ETH Zurich have managed to create magnetic building blocks in the shape of cubes that - for the first time ever - can be joined together to...

Im Focus: A new quantum data classification protocol brings us nearer to a future 'quantum internet'

The algorithm represents a first step in the automated learning of quantum information networks

Quantum-based communication and computation technologies promise unprecedented applications, such as unconditionally secure communications, ultra-precise...

Im Focus: Distorted Atoms

In two experiments performed at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg a cooperation led by physicists from the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute for Nuclear physics (MPIK) demonstrated strongly-driven nonlinear interaction of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) laser pulses with atoms and ions. The powerful excitation of an electron pair in helium was found to compete with the ultrafast decay, which temporarily may even lead to population inversion. Resonant transitions in doubly charged neon ions were shifted in energy, and observed by XUV-XUV pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy.

An international team led by physicists from the MPIK reports on new results for efficient two-electron excitations in helium driven by strong and ultrashort...

Im Focus: A Memory Effect at Single-Atom Level

An international research group has observed new quantum properties on an artificial giant atom and has now published its results in the high-ranking journal Nature Physics. The quantum system under investigation apparently has a memory - a new finding that could be used to build a quantum computer.

The research group, consisting of German, Swedish and Indian scientists, has investigated an artificial quantum system and found new properties.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

High entropy alloys for hot turbines and tireless metal-forming presses

05.11.2019 | Event News

Smart lasers open up new applications and are the “tool of choice” in digitalization

30.10.2019 | Event News

International Symposium on Functional Materials for Electrolysis, Fuel Cells and Metal-Air Batteries

02.10.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Magnetic tuning at the nanoscale

13.11.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

At future Mars landing spot, scientists spy mineral that could preserve signs of past life

13.11.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Necessity is the mother of invention: Fraunhofer WKI tests utilization of low-value hardwood for wood fiberboard

13.11.2019 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>