Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics

17.03.2008
Fireworks pollute—nitrogen-rich compounds now pave the way for ecological alternatives

You know it is chemistry when it stinks and goes boom—and entrances us. “No other application in the field of chemistry has such a positive association for the general population as fireworks,” says Thomas Klapötke (University of Munich, Germany). “However, pyrotechnical applications are significant polluters of the environment.”

In the journal Angewandte Chemie, Klapötke and his co-author Georg Steinhauser (TU Vienna, Austria) give an overview of how nitrogen-rich compounds and other new strategies could help to limit the danger to the environment.

In addition to fireworks, the field of pyrotechnics includes applications like airbags, signal flares, propellants and charges for civil and military purposes, and the production of nanoporous metal foams for catalysis, hydrogen storage, and insulation.

... more about:
»Agent »Klapötke »compounds »propellant »pyrotechnic

Pyrotechnical materials contain an oxidizer and a reducing agent; depending on the application, binding material, propellant charges, coloring agents and smoke- and sound-producing agents can be added. When a firework or other pyrotechnic is set off, it releases a whole cocktail of poisons damaging to humans and the environment: heavy metals like lead, barium and chromium, chlorates, dioxins, smoke and particulates, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen and sulfur oxides. “For a long time, the consequences of this were not considered,” says Klapötke, “in the mean time scientists have been working on more environmentally friendly alternatives.” As usual, the main stumbling block is price pressure because the new products must compete with the established ones. Klapötke says, “Lawmakers and other promoters must intercede to address this.”

“Modern developments in pyrotechnics are aimed at the use of nitrogen-rich compounds,” according to Klapötke. In contrast to conventional energetic substances, these do not draw their energy from the oxidation of the carbon backbone, but from their high heats of formation, which are released upon their decomposition. Interesting candidates include derivatives of tetrazoles, five-membered rings made of four nitrogen and one carbon atom, as well as tetrazines, six-membered rings made of four nitrogen and two carbon atoms. Aminotetrazole salts with the nontoxic metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium result in red, orange, violet, purple, and pink colored flames. The trouble is with the color green. Intensive research is being carried out in search of barium-free green-burning salts based on copper compounds.

The class of nitrogen-rich pyrotechnics does not offer only environmentally friendly combustion products; they often offer better color quality and intensity than conventional mixtures. Nitrogen-rich propellants demonstrate improved performance and burn smoke free.

Author: Thomas M. Klapötke, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (Germany), http://www.chemie.uni-muenchen.de/ac/klapoetke/?menu=adress

Title: “Green” Pyrotechnics: A Chemists´ Challenge

Angewandte Chemie International Edition, doi: 10.1002/anie.200704510

Thomas M. Klapötke | Angewandte Chemie
Further information:
http://pressroom.angewandte.org
http://www.chemie.uni-muenchen.de/ac/klapoetke/?menu=adress

Further reports about: Agent Klapötke compounds propellant pyrotechnic

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation

nachricht Pollen taxi for bacteria
18.07.2018 | Technische Universität München

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts

18.07.2018 | Life Sciences

Machine-learning predicted a superhard and high-energy-density tungsten nitride

18.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

Why might reading make myopic?

18.07.2018 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>