Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

'Weight training' muscles reduce fat, improve metabolism in mice

07.02.2008
Resistance training can reduce body mass

Researchers from the Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have demonstrated that in mice, the use of barbells may be as important to losing weight and improving health as the use of running shoes. The discovery builds upon the fact that skeletal muscle consists of two types of fibers.

Endurance training such as running increases the amount of type I muscle fibers, while resistance training such as weightlifting increases type II muscle fibers. Using a mouse genetic model, BUSM researchers demonstrated that an increase in type II muscle mass can reduce body fat which in turn reduces overall body mass and improves metabolic parameters such as insulin resistance. These studies indicate that weight bearing exercise, in addition to endurance training, may benefit overweight people. The study appears in the February 6th issue of Cell Metabolism.

The researchers genetically engineered a mouse, called the MyoMouse, to grow type II fibers by activating a muscle growth-regulating gene. The gene, called Akt1, was engineered in such a way that it could be turned on and off at will by researchers. Even without exercise, activating the gene made the MyoMouse physically stronger. When the gene was de-activated, the mouse returned to its original strength. While stronger and faster than a regular mouse, the MyoMouse did not run with as much endurance on a treadmill, a finding that is consistent with the growth of type II rather than type I muscle. These findings demonstrate that the mouse was genetically programmed to have the characteristics of a lean and powerful sprinter rather than those of a gaunt marathon runner.

In the study, the Akt1 gene was turned off and the MyoMice were fed a high fat/high sugar diet with a similar caloric composition as a meal from a fast food restaurant. Over an eight-week period, the mice became obese and insulin resistant and developed fatty acid deposits in their liver, a condition referred to as hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease.

The researchers then activated the Akt1 gene in the animals which led to the growth of type II muscle fibers. “Remarkably, type II muscle growth was associated with an overall reduction in body mass, due to a large decrease in fat mass. In addition, blood tests showed that these mice became metabolically normal and their fatty liver disease rapidly resolved,” said senior author Kenneth Walsh, PhD, a professor of medicine and head of Molecular Cardiology at the Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute at BUSM.

The beneficial changes occurred despite the fact that the mice continued to eat the same high-calorie diet and did not display any increase in physical activity. “This work shows that type II muscle just doesn’t allow you to pick up heavy objects, it is also important in controlling whole body metabolism,” added Walsh.

Further analysis found that the mice burned fat because of changes in the physiology and gene expression of their fat and liver cells. “Thus, it appears that the increase in type II muscle fiber orchestrates changes in the body through its ability to communicate with these other tissues,” he said.

These findings indicate that type II muscle has a previously unappreciated role in regulating whole body metabolism through its ability to alter the metabolic properties of remote tissues. These data also suggest that strength training, in addition to the widely-prescribed therapy of endurance training, may be of particular benefit to overweight individuals

Finally, these findings may be relevant for understanding aspects of the aging process. “Beyond the age of thirty, humans lose approximately 6 lbs of muscle mass per decade. Surprisingly, aging individuals predominantly lose type II muscle. Thus a 50 year old may be relatively good at playing tennis or jogging because type I muscle is preserved, but a measurement of grip strength or core body strength could show appreciable declines,” explained Walsh. Therefore, this new study suggests that the loss of type II muscle contributes to the development of obesity and diabetes as we age.

The BUSM researchers suspect that the beneficial effects of muscle growth seen in the MyoMouse are mediated through the production and secretion of a variety of signaling factors. Walsh and his colleagues are currently identifying the novel proteins in muscle that communicate with other tissues. These new proteins, referred to as “myokines” from the Greek words “muscle” and “motion,” may represent new targets for therapies that mimic the benefits of weight training for the treatment of obesity and diabetes as well as muscle wasting disorders.

Gina DiGravio | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.bmc.org
http://www.bumc.bu.edu/Dept/Home.aspx?DepartmentID=106

Further reports about: BUSM HDL-cholesterol MyoMouse fiber liver metabolism reduce strength

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Looking for new antibiotics
08.04.2020 | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH

nachricht Research against the corona virus - tissue models for rapid drug testing
08.04.2020 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung ISC

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The human body as an electrical conductor, a new method of wireless power transfer

Published by Marc Tudela, Laura Becerra-Fajardo, Aracelys García-Moreno, Jesus Minguillon and Antoni Ivorra, in Access, the journal of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The project Electronic AXONs: wireless microstimulators based on electronic rectification of epidermically applied currents (eAXON, 2017-2022), funded by a...

Im Focus: Belle II yields the first results: In search of the Z′ boson

The Belle II experiment has been collecting data from physical measurements for about one year. After several years of rebuilding work, both the SuperKEKB electron–positron accelerator and the Belle II detector have been improved compared with their predecessors in order to achieve a 40-fold higher data rate.

Scientists at 12 institutes in Germany are involved in constructing and operating the detector, developing evaluation algorithms, and analyzing the data.

Im Focus: When ions rattle their cage

Electrolytes play a key role in many areas: They are crucial for the storage of energy in our body as well as in batteries. In order to release energy, ions - charged atoms - must move in a liquid such as water. Until now the precise mechanism by which they move through the atoms and molecules of the electrolyte has, however, remained largely unknown. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research have now shown that the electrical resistance of an electrolyte, which is determined by the motion of ions, can be traced back to microscopic vibrations of these dissolved ions.

In chemistry, common table salt is also known as sodium chloride. If this salt is dissolved in water, sodium and chloride atoms dissolve as positively or...

Im Focus: Harnessing the rain for hydrovoltaics

Drops of water falling on or sliding over surfaces may leave behind traces of electrical charge, causing the drops to charge themselves. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz have now begun a detailed investigation into this phenomenon that accompanies us in every-day life. They developed a method to quantify the charge generation and additionally created a theoretical model to aid understanding. According to the scientists, the observed effect could be a source of generated power and an important building block for understanding frictional electricity.

Water drops sliding over non-conducting surfaces can be found everywhere in our lives: From the dripping of a coffee machine, to a rinse in the shower, to an...

Im Focus: A sensational discovery: Traces of rainforests in West Antarctica

90 million-year-old forest soil provides unexpected evidence for exceptionally warm climate near the South Pole in the Cretaceous

An international team of researchers led by geoscientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) have now...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium AWK'21 will take place on June 10 and 11, 2021

07.04.2020 | Event News

International Coral Reef Symposium in Bremen Postponed by a Year

06.04.2020 | Event News

13th AKL – International Laser Technology Congress: May 4–6, 2022 in Aachen – Laser Technology Live already this year!

02.04.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Doubts about basic assumption for the universe

08.04.2020 | Physics and Astronomy

Accelerating AI Together – DFKI Welcomes NVIDIA as Newest Shareholder

08.04.2020 | Information Technology

Ear’s inner secrets revealed with new technology

08.04.2020 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>