A central player in generating actin networks is the Arp2/3 complex. In most cells, there are multiple proteins that can regulate the function of the Arp2/3 complex, although how the activities of these proteins are coordinated in the cell to generate the appropriate network of actin filaments in a complex, multi-step process remains unclear.
To better understand how multiple Arp2/3 regulatory proteins are coordinated in the cell, Brian Galletta, Dennis Chuang, and John Cooper used a combination of live-cell imaging, computer-aided particle tracking, and quantitative motion analysis to determine how disruption of the function of each of these regulatory proteins, individually and its combination, altered the movement of actin patches in bakers yeast.
These studies have revealed that while Arp2/3 regulatory proteins sometimes play overlapping roles in this process, they often play unique roles. The molecular machinery contained in actin patches can be found throughout nature. Therefore, Brian Galleta says that, “these studies should shed light on how actin networks are regulated in human cells during normal cell function and allow for a better understanding of how actin misregulation might contribute to the progression of disease processes including cancer, inflammation, and infection.”
Andrew Hyde | alfa
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Since their experimental discovery, magnetic skyrmions - tiny magnetic knots - have moved into the focus of research. Scientists from Hamburg and Kiel have now been able to show that individual magnetic skyrmions with a diameter of only a few nanometres can be stabilised in magnetic metal films even without an external magnetic field. They report on their discovery in the journal Nature Communications.
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Theoretical physicists at Trinity College Dublin are among an international collaboration that has built the world's smallest engine - which, as a single calcium ion, is approximately ten billion times smaller than a car engine.
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Together with the University of Innsbruck, the ETH Zurich and Interactive Fully Electrical Vehicles SRL, Infineon Austria is researching specific questions on the commercial use of quantum computers. With new innovations in design and manufacturing, the partners from universities and industry want to develop affordable components for quantum computers.
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Experimental progress towards engineering quantized gauge fields coupled to ultracold matter promises a versatile platform to tackle problems ranging from condensed-matter to high-energy physics
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Soft robots have a distinct advantage over their rigid forebears: they can adapt to complex environments, handle fragile objects and interact safely with humans. Made from silicone, rubber or other stretchable polymers, they are ideal for use in rehabilitation exoskeletons and robotic clothing. Soft bio-inspired robots could one day be deployed to explore remote or dangerous environments.
Most soft robots are actuated by rigid, noisy pumps that push fluids into the machines' moving parts. Because they are connected to these bulky pumps by tubes,...
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