The BIOCHIP-IMB company was set up at the Institute for production of domestic microchips. During the press-tour on November 15, 2007, the researchers told journalists about progress and achievements. The project of the laboratory of biological microchips at the Institute of Molecular Biology (Russian Academy of Sciences ) is one of the winners at the contest of projects on the “Living Systems” priority direction of the Federal Target Program guided by the Federal Agency for Science and Innovations (Rosnauka).
“The main property of biological microchips is massive parallel analysis of biological material”, explains Dmitry Gryadunov, researcher of the laboratory. The biochip per se is the glass upon which multiple microcells are located, each of the cells being a miniature analogue of a test-tube, where the reaction is taking place. The cells contain the DNA-probes, each of them being able to recognize any section of the patient’s DNA. Biological material – a drop of blood or other bioliquid – is applied at the glass, and interaction occurs in microcells between the DNA-probe and the DNA section complementary to it – that is hybridization: they match each other like the key and the lock. If the reaction has taken place, luminescence occurs in the cell, the luminescence can be discovered with the help of the “Chipdetector” analyzer device.
The very first biochip was developed by the researchers of the Institute of Molecular Biology for detection of various forms of tuberculosis. Insidious mycobacteria mutate very quickly and become immune to drugs. To understand how the patient should be treated, it is necessary to know precisely which mutant form of pathogene the patient is infected with. For this purpose, biochip is simply indispensable as instead of multiple lengthy analysis it gives the opportunity to find out the answer at once via a single analysis. The DNA-probes reveal peculiarities of mycobacteria’s DNA.
“The price per analysis with the help of our biochips is about 500 Rubles, and this is several times less than that of foreign analogues, says Victor Barsky, Director General, BIOCHIP-IMB, Doctor of Biology. Now, we are producing 1,500 to 2,000 biochips per month, but in the future we are planning to pass on to 3 to 4 thousand per month. However, the demand for this diagnostics method is much higher.” Besides tuberculosis biochips, the researchers have also created other kinds of diagnostic biochips. They help to discover chromosomal abnormalities in case of different types of leucosis, to analyze varieties of influenza viruses, including, bird flu, to detect pathogens of herpes, hepatite ?, mycoplasma, cytomegalovirus with pregnant women and new-borns, predisposition to oncological diseases, including, breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases, to identify the blood groups and to reveal various drugs intolerance. Not all of the above-mentioned biochips have been certified. As Victor Barsky explains, it is particularly difficult to certify predisposition identification biochips: even provided the individual has predisposition, he/she may or may not fall ill. Therefore, tremendous statistics should be collected so that this method could be applied in clinics. So far, it is applied along with others to confirm the diagnosis.
In Russia, tuberculosis biochips are applied in 20 tuberculosis centers. Employees of these centers take method learning at the Institute. Partners and customers of the Institute of Molecular Biology are the Institute of Virology (Russian Academy of Medical Sciences), French hospital in Toulouse (the hepatite C biochip production is being developed with French colleagues), biochips and devices for analysis are delivered to Belarus, Ukraine, Kirgizia, South Korea, Brazil, and they are passing clinical trials in the USA.
The excursion to the laboratory of biological microchips was carried out by Alexander Zasedatelev, Deputy Director of the Institute, Doctor of Biology. Before entering the sterile zone for biochip production, the journalists put on disposable smocks, caps and shoe covers. The biochip “stuffing” – DNA-probes – is being produced here. In a different manufacturing premise, robots are working round the clock, without rest to methodically apply these probes into microcells under the computer control. It is good that the most laborious and lengthy part of work can be trusted to robots! However, all production is man-checked on a special device with a monitor. And after that, the biochips that have passed the checkup can be entrusted with diagnostics of human diseases. In contrast to physicians, they make no mistakes.
Nadezda Markina | alfa
The Secret of the Rock Drawings
24.05.2019 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie
Chemical juggling with three particles
24.05.2019 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
A new assessment of NASA's record of global temperatures revealed that the agency's estimate of Earth's long-term temperature rise in recent decades is accurate to within less than a tenth of a degree Fahrenheit, providing confidence that past and future research is correctly capturing rising surface temperatures.
The most complete assessment ever of statistical uncertainty within the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) data product shows that the annual values...
Physicists at the University of Basel are able to show for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. A newly developed method enables them to show the probability of an electron being present in a space. This allows improved control of electron spins, which could serve as the smallest information unit in a future quantum computer. The experiments were published in Physical Review Letters and the related theory in Physical Review B.
The spin of an electron is a promising candidate for use as the smallest information unit (qubit) of a quantum computer. Controlling and switching this spin or...
Engineers at the University of Tokyo continually pioneer new ways to improve battery technology. Professor Atsuo Yamada and his team recently developed a...
With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists from Innsbruck, Austria, open the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. The research groups led by Rainer Blatt and Peter Zoller report in the journal Nature how they simulated particle physics phenomena on 20 quantum bits and how the quantum simulator self-verified the result for the first time.
Many scientists are currently working on investigating how quantum advantage can be exploited on hardware already available today. Three years ago, physicists...
'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing.
However a major challenge in developing these technologies is that the quantum phenomena are very fragile, and only a handful of physical systems have been...
29.04.2019 | Event News
17.04.2019 | Event News
15.04.2019 | Event News
24.05.2019 | Physics and Astronomy
24.05.2019 | Medical Engineering
24.05.2019 | Life Sciences