A new study in Nature Medicine describes how different types of immune system T-cells alternately discourage and encourage stem cells to regrow bone and tissue, bringing into sharp focus the importance of the transplant recipient's immune system in stem cell regeneration.
The study, conducted at the Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology at the Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, examined how mice with genetic bone defects responded to infusions of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or BMMSC.
Under normal conditions, the mice's T-cells produced an inflammatory response and triggered the creation of cellular proteins interferon (INF)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. These attacked and killed the stem cells, preventing the production of new bone.
"Normally, T-cells protect us from infection," said Professor Songtao Shi, corresponding author for the study, "but they can block healthy regeneration from happening."
However, when the mice were given infusions of regulatory T-cells, or Treg, the levels of the interfering INF-gamma and TNF-alpha decreased, increasing the rate of bone growth and defect repair. Furthermore, administering the anti-inflammatory drug aspirin at the site of the bone defect also increased the rate at which the BMMSCs were able to regrow bone.
Postdoctoral Research Associate and lead author Yi Liu said the findings illustrate the previously unrecognized role of T-cells in tissue regeneration. They also highlight the need for scientists exploring the possibilities of stem cell regeneration to shift their focus to the immune system, she added.
"Based on what we've found, this should be the direction of more research in the future," Liu said.
Yi Liu, Lei Wang, Takashi Kikuiri, Kentaro Akiyama, Chider Chen, Xingtian Xu, Ruili Yang, WanJun Chen, Songlin Wang, and Songtao Shi. (in press) Mesenchymal stem cell–based tissue regeneration is governed by recipient T lymphocytes via IFN-ã and TNF-á. Nature Medicine doi: 10.1038/nm.2542
Beth Dunham | EurekAlert!
A landscape of mammalian development
21.02.2019 | Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Genetik
Atopic dermatitis: elevated salt concentrations in affected skin
21.02.2019 | Technische Universität München
Up to now, OLEDs have been used exclusively as a novel lighting technology for use in luminaires and lamps. However, flexible organic technology can offer much more: as an active lighting surface, it can be combined with a wide variety of materials, not just to modify but to revolutionize the functionality and design of countless existing products. To exemplify this, the Fraunhofer FEP together with the company EMDE development of light GmbH will be presenting hybrid flexible OLEDs integrated into textile designs within the EU-funded project PI-SCALE for the first time at LOPEC (March 19-21, 2019 in Munich, Germany) as examples of some of the many possible applications.
The Fraunhofer FEP, a provider of research and development services in the field of organic electronics, has long been involved in the development of...
For the first time, an international team of scientists based in Regensburg, Germany, has recorded the orbitals of single molecules in different charge states in a novel type of microscopy. The research findings are published under the title “Mapping orbital changes upon electron transfer with tunneling microscopy on insulators” in the prestigious journal “Nature”.
The building blocks of matter surrounding us are atoms and molecules. The properties of that matter, however, are often not set by these building blocks...
Scientists at the University of Konstanz identify fierce competition between the human immune system and bacterial pathogens
Cell biologists from the University of Konstanz shed light on a recent evolutionary process in the human immune system and publish their findings in the...
Laser physicists have taken snapshots of carbon molecules C₆₀ showing how they transform in intense infrared light
When carbon molecules C₆₀ are exposed to an intense infrared light, they change their ball-like structure to a more elongated version. This has now been...
The so-called Abelian sandpile model has been studied by scientists for more than 30 years to better understand a physical phenomenon called self-organized...
11.02.2019 | Event News
30.01.2019 | Event News
16.01.2019 | Event News
21.02.2019 | Life Sciences
21.02.2019 | Earth Sciences
21.02.2019 | Life Sciences