A new study in Nature Medicine describes how different types of immune system T-cells alternately discourage and encourage stem cells to regrow bone and tissue, bringing into sharp focus the importance of the transplant recipient's immune system in stem cell regeneration.
The study, conducted at the Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology at the Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC, examined how mice with genetic bone defects responded to infusions of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or BMMSC.
Under normal conditions, the mice's T-cells produced an inflammatory response and triggered the creation of cellular proteins interferon (INF)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. These attacked and killed the stem cells, preventing the production of new bone.
"Normally, T-cells protect us from infection," said Professor Songtao Shi, corresponding author for the study, "but they can block healthy regeneration from happening."
However, when the mice were given infusions of regulatory T-cells, or Treg, the levels of the interfering INF-gamma and TNF-alpha decreased, increasing the rate of bone growth and defect repair. Furthermore, administering the anti-inflammatory drug aspirin at the site of the bone defect also increased the rate at which the BMMSCs were able to regrow bone.
Postdoctoral Research Associate and lead author Yi Liu said the findings illustrate the previously unrecognized role of T-cells in tissue regeneration. They also highlight the need for scientists exploring the possibilities of stem cell regeneration to shift their focus to the immune system, she added.
"Based on what we've found, this should be the direction of more research in the future," Liu said.
Yi Liu, Lei Wang, Takashi Kikuiri, Kentaro Akiyama, Chider Chen, Xingtian Xu, Ruili Yang, WanJun Chen, Songlin Wang, and Songtao Shi. (in press) Mesenchymal stem cell–based tissue regeneration is governed by recipient T lymphocytes via IFN-ã and TNF-á. Nature Medicine doi: 10.1038/nm.2542
Beth Dunham | EurekAlert!
Polarization of Br2 molecule in vanadium oxide cluster cavity and new alkane bromination
13.07.2020 | Kanazawa University
Researchers present concept for a new technique to study superheavy elements
13.07.2020 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Biochemists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have used a standard electron cryo-microscope to achieve surprisingly good images that are on par with those taken by far more sophisticated equipment. They have succeeded in determining the structure of ferritin almost at the atomic level. Their results were published in the journal "PLOS ONE".
Electron cryo-microscopy has become increasingly important in recent years, especially in shedding light on protein structures. The developers of the new...
New insight into the spin behavior in an exotic state of matter puts us closer to next-generation spintronic devices
Aside from the deep understanding of the natural world that quantum physics theory offers, scientists worldwide are working tirelessly to bring forth a...
Kiel physics team observed extremely fast electronic changes in real time in a special material class
In physics, they are currently the subject of intensive research; in electronics, they could enable completely new functions. So-called topological materials...
Solar cells based on perovskite compounds could soon make electricity generation from sunlight even more efficient and cheaper. The laboratory efficiency of these perovskite solar cells already exceeds that of the well-known silicon solar cells. An international team led by Stefan Weber from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz has found microscopic structures in perovskite crystals that can guide the charge transport in the solar cell. Clever alignment of these "electron highways" could make perovskite solar cells even more powerful.
Solar cells convert sunlight into electricity. During this process, the electrons of the material inside the cell absorb the energy of the light....
Empa researchers have succeeded in applying aerogels to microelectronics: Aerogels based on cellulose nanofibers can effectively shield electromagnetic radiation over a wide frequency range – and they are unrivalled in terms of weight.
Electric motors and electronic devices generate electromagnetic fields that sometimes have to be shielded in order not to affect neighboring electronic...
07.07.2020 | Event News
02.07.2020 | Event News
19.05.2020 | Event News
13.07.2020 | Physics and Astronomy
13.07.2020 | Life Sciences
13.07.2020 | Life Sciences