A team of Dutch and German researchers under the leadership of Albert Heck and Friedrich Förster has discovered the operation of one of the oldest biological clocks in the world, which is crucial for life on earth as we know it. The researcher from the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry and the Utrecht University applied a new combination of cutting-edge research techniques. They discovered how the biological clock in cyanobacteria works in detail. Important to understand life, because cyanobacteria were the first organisms on earth producing oxygen via photosynthesis. The results of their research were published in Science.
Ten years ago, researchers discovered that the biological clock in cyanobacteria consists of only three protein components: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. These are the building blocks - the gears, springs and balances - of an ingenious system resembling a precision Swiss timepiece.
In 2005, Japanese scientists published an article in Science showing that a solution of these three components in a test tube could run a 24-hour cycle for days when a bit of energy was added. However, the scientists were not able to uncover the exact operation of the system, despite its relative simplicity.
How could the scientists resolve the working of the individual pieces? “In the end, the trick to understand the ticking biological clock in cyanobacteria was to literally make time stop”, tells research leader Albert Heck from Utrecht University. “Or as William Faulkner, Nobel Prize Laureate in Literature said: ‘Only when the clock stops does time come to life.’ Faulkner spoke taking a pause in the constant haste of life. That was also the trick here. We slowed the biological clock by running it in the fridge for a week. In the literal sense we have frozen the time.”
In addition to stopping time, the researchers applied a new combination of cutting-edge research techniques. With one technique, they were able to determine how often each of the three protein complexes - KaiA, KaiB and KaiC - assembled or disassembled in a single 24-hour cycle. This taught them which collections of protein components - combinations of gears, springs and balances - determine the daily rhythm.
They then stopped the clock at specific moments by reducing the temperature. This allowed them to use a variety of techniques to zoom in in great detail on the structure of the collection of protein components at that moment - the position of the gears, springs and balances. In so doing, they identified the two structures that are vital to understanding how the clock works. The researchers could then derive how the wheels turn by determining the transitions from one structure to another. This produced a model that shows exactly how only three protein components form a precision timepiece that operates on a 24-hour cycle.
"Even though the biological clock of cyanobacteria is very old in terms of geological history, we can still learn a lot from the system today," says Heck. Just a few years ago researchers discovered a similar process in our red blood cells. "Cyanobacteria are the first organisms that have produced oxygen. Oxygen enrichment was the foundation for today's life. With the results of this study, we are learning about the biological primal mechanisms of life, but we can pursue specific aspects directly in clinical research," Heck summarizes.
J. Snijder, J.M. Schuller, A. Wiegard, P. Lössl, N. Schmelling, I.M.Axmann, J.M. Plitzko, F. Förster and A.J.R. Heck: Structures of the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator frozen in a fully assembled state, Science, March 2017
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Plitzko
Department Structural Biology
Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
Am Klopferspitz 18
Dr. Christiane Menzfeld
Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
Am Klopferspitz 18
Tel. +49 89 8578-2824
http://www.biochem.mpg.de/en - homepage max planck institute of biochemistry
Dr. Christiane Menzfeld | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie
Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View
22.06.2018 | University of Sussex
New cellular pathway helps explain how inflammation leads to artery disease
22.06.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Russian researchers together with their French colleagues discovered that a genuine feature of superconductors -- quantum Abrikosov vortices of supercurrent -- can also exist in an ordinary nonsuperconducting metal put into contact with a superconductor. The observation of these vortices provides direct evidence of induced quantum coherence. The pioneering experimental observation was supported by a first-ever numerical model that describes the induced vortices in finer detail.
These fundamental results, published in the journal Nature Communications, enable a better understanding and description of the processes occurring at the...
In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.
Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...
Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
25.06.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
25.06.2018 | Earth Sciences
25.06.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering