Scientists optimize a procedure toward regenerative medicine for bone defects
Scientists from the New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) Research Institute have developed a new bone engineering technique called Segmental Additive Tissue Engineering (SATE). The technique, described in a paper published online today in Scientific Reports, allows researchers to combine segments of bone engineered from stem cells to create large scale, personalized grafts that will enhance treatment for those suffering from bone disease or injury through regenerative medicine.
"We are hopeful that SATE will one day be able to improve the lives of the millions of people suffering from bone injury due to trauma, cancer, osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, and other devastating conditions," says Susan L. Solomon, NYSCF CEO. "Our goal is to help these patients return to normal life, and by leveraging the power of regenerative medicine, SATE brings us one step closer to reaching that goal."
Over a million individuals per year will suffer from a fracture due to bone disease, and as people age, their bones get weaker, leading to complications later in life. From traumatic injuries due to car accidents, domestic violence, and service in combat to genetic malformation resulting from diseases like osteogenesis imperfecta, the burden of bone deficiencies is massive and rapidly increasing.
"Bone defects obtained in disease or injury are a growing issue, and having effective treatment options in place for personalized relief, no matter the severity of a patient's condition, is of critical importance," explains NYSCF - Ralph Lauren Senior Principal Investigator Giuseppe de Peppo, PhD, who led the study.
Bone defects are currently treated with either synthetic substitutes or bone grafts taken from a bone bank or another part of the patient's body. However, these treatments often spark immune rejection, do not form connective tissue or vasculature needed for functional bone, and can be quickly outgrown by pediatric patients. Bone grafts generated from patient stem cells overcome such limitations, but it is difficult to bioengineer these grafts in the exact size and shape needed to treat large defects.
"As the size of the defect that needs to be replaced gets larger, it becomes harder to reproducibly create a graft that can move from the lab to the clinic," says NYSCF researcher Dr. Martina Sladkova, the study's first author. "We wanted to see if we could instead engineer smaller segments of bone individually and then combine them to create a graft that overcomes the current limitations in the size and shape of a bone that can be grown in the lab."
To explore this question, the team engineered a graft corresponding to a defect in the femur of a rabbit that affected about 30% of the bone's total volume. They first scanned the femur to assess the size and shape of the defect and generated a model of the graft. They then partitioned the model into smaller segments and created customized scaffolds for each.
The team then placed these scaffolds, fitted with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesodermal progenitor cells, into a bioreactor specially designed to accommodate bone grafts with a broad range of sizes. This bioreactor was able to ensure uniform development of tissue throughout the graft, something that existing versions of bioreactors often struggle to do.
Once the cells integrated and grown within the scaffold, the segments of the bone graft could then be combined into a single, mechanically stable graft using biocompatible bone adhesives or other orthopedic devices.
SATE is standardized, versatile, and easy to implement, allowing for bioengineered bone grafts to more quickly make the leap from bench to bedside, and the researchers are confident in its potential to enable bone graft engineering that will help to improve the quality of life of pediatric and adult patients suffering from segmental bone defects.
About The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute
The New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) Research Institute is an independent organization accelerating cures and better treatments for patients through stem cell research. The NYSCF global community includes over 150 researchers at leading institutions worldwide, including the NYSCF - Druckenmiller Fellows, the NYSCF - Robertson Investigators, the NYSCF - Robertson Stem Cell Prize Recipients, and NYSCF Research Institute scientists and engineers. The NYSCF Research Institute is an acknowledged world leader in stem cell research and in developing pioneering stem cell technologies, including the NYSCF Global Stem Cell ArrayTM and in manufacturing stem cells for scientists around the globe. NYSCF focuses on translational research in a model designed to overcome barriers that slow discovery and replace silos with collaboration. For more information, visit http://www.
David McKeon | EurekAlert!
Platinum nanoparticles for selective treatment of liver cancer cells
15.02.2019 | ETH Zurich
New molecular blueprint advances our understanding of photosynthesis
15.02.2019 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
For the first time, an international team of scientists based in Regensburg, Germany, has recorded the orbitals of single molecules in different charge states in a novel type of microscopy. The research findings are published under the title “Mapping orbital changes upon electron transfer with tunneling microscopy on insulators” in the prestigious journal “Nature”.
The building blocks of matter surrounding us are atoms and molecules. The properties of that matter, however, are often not set by these building blocks...
Scientists at the University of Konstanz identify fierce competition between the human immune system and bacterial pathogens
Cell biologists from the University of Konstanz shed light on a recent evolutionary process in the human immune system and publish their findings in the...
Laser physicists have taken snapshots of carbon molecules C₆₀ showing how they transform in intense infrared light
When carbon molecules C₆₀ are exposed to an intense infrared light, they change their ball-like structure to a more elongated version. This has now been...
The so-called Abelian sandpile model has been studied by scientists for more than 30 years to better understand a physical phenomenon called self-organized...
Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a new method to examine the elasticity and binding properties of DNA molecules on a surface at extremely low temperatures. With a combination of cryo-force spectroscopy and computer simulations, they were able to show that DNA molecules behave like a chain of small coil springs. The researchers reported their findings in Nature Communications.
DNA is not only a popular research topic because it contains the blueprint for life – it can also be used to produce tiny components for technical applications.
11.02.2019 | Event News
30.01.2019 | Event News
16.01.2019 | Event News
15.02.2019 | Physics and Astronomy
15.02.2019 | Physics and Astronomy
15.02.2019 | Life Sciences