Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

NIH and UNC researchers define role of protein vinculin in cell movement

15.08.2013
Researchers at the University of North Carolina and the National Institutes for Health have defined the role of the protein vinculin in enabling cell movement.

In a paper published in the Journal of Cell Biology, Sharon Campbell, PhD, professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics and member of UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Clare Waterman of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health showed that cell mobility occurs through the interactions between the protein vinculin and the cytoskeletal lattice formed by the protein actin.

By physically binding to the actin that makes up the cytoskeleton, vinculin operates as a form of molecular clutch transferring force and controlling cell motion.

"The hypothesis with the molecular clutch is that you get this kind of treadmilling effect. If you have an analogy with a car, the car is running in neutral. You get something pushing forward and something pulling behind, and you really don't have much effect on the cell. You have a lot of energy that's lost. But if it engages, this slows the retrogade flow and the actin polymerization pushes the leading edge forward so that it can move," said Campbell.

In this context, vinculin localizes to cellular components called focal adhesions, with over a hundred different proteins, and has been postulated to play a critical role as a molecular clutch. These adhesions can be thought of as wheels, taking the energy from the actin cytoskeleton and using it to move the whole cell across a substrate. So how important is this one protein, vinculin, in regulating cell movement?

Studies with knockout models that deactivated vinculin show that the cell still can move without the protein, but the movement becomes more chaotic. This can impact cell processes such as organ development. Embryonic mice without vinculin, for example, do not develop in the womb.

"Vinculin makes cells almost smarter, in a way. It really helps the cells decide if they are going to stay put or if they are going to go. And if they are going to go, it is going to be in a direction where there is a reason to go to. If you knock vinculin out, they lose that. They lose the anchoring effect. They move more easily, but they also move more randomly," said Peter Thompson, paper co-author and graduate student in the Campbell lab.

As vinculin can associate with a number of distinct proteins, Campbell and her lab designed specific vinculin variants that disrupted its ability to bind actin, in an effort to tease out the role of an interaction deemed critical for vinculin function. These impaired vinculin molecules were used by the Waterman group to show that interaction between actin and vinculin is required for proper development of cellular components and coupling of adhesions to actin, which are critical for the process of controlled cell movement.

The clarification of the role of vinculin helps refine understanding of cell movement, an enormously complex process involving multiple protein interactions. By improving the overall understanding of the protein interactions, researchers can create drugs and therapies that finely target the protein interactions and limit side effects.

"What we are trying to do is determine out of all the jobs that vinculin has, which ones are really critical for which cellular responses. Getting this kind of information is important because when we design drugs or therapies to target things, we want to be very specific so we limit side effects. It is still very far away from any sort of treatment, but it is setting the groundwork and foundation upon which we can target very specific aspects of cell movement and force transduction," said Thompson.

Cell movement plays an important role in cancer research because of the role of metastasis in tumor development. In many cancers, the greatest threat to the patient comes not from the original tumor but from the cancer cells that migrate and form new tumors throughout the body.

"By helping us better understand how cell movement occurs, we can better understand metastasis," said Thompson.

William Davis | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.med.unc.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Barium ruthenate: A high-yield, easy-to-handle perovskite catalyst for the oxidation of sulfides
16.07.2018 | Tokyo Institute of Technology

nachricht The secret sulfate code that lets the bad Tau in
16.07.2018 | American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Subaru Telescope helps pinpoint origin of ultra-high energy neutrino

16.07.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Barium ruthenate: A high-yield, easy-to-handle perovskite catalyst for the oxidation of sulfides

16.07.2018 | Life Sciences

New research calculates capacity of North American forests to sequester carbon

16.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>