Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Methane seeps: Oases in the deep sea

17.03.2015

First global study of microbial communities at gas seeps in the deep sea shows the distribution and diversity of methane-consuming microorganisms. The specific energy source selects for unique microorganisms, which turn these ecosystems into hotspots of diversity in the deep sea.

Methane seeps are places in the ocean, where methane from deep sediment layers escapes the seabed. Specific microorganisms use the potential greenhouse gas as an energy source and thus form the basis for complex ecosystems.


Methanotrophic microorganisms of methane seep ecosystems.

Micrographs of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (white), anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME – red) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB – green) visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. ANME and SRB perform the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). AOM is a globally relevant process removing 60 million tons, the mass of ten pyramids of Giza, of the greenhouse gas methane from seafloor sediments each year. Courtesy of Katrin Knittel/Emil Ruff, MPI Bremen.

Now an international team of researchers led by the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology has investigated the microbial communities of selected methane seeps from all oceans, and compared those to communities of other marine ecosystems. In the current issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), the researchers report that methane seeps contain many endemic microorganisms and therefore are hotspots of biodiversity in the deep sea.

In general, the seep communities are very different from those of other ecosystems. Only a few species of methanotrophs occur at all seeps worldwide, but these microorganisms seem to greatly influence the methane budget of the ocean.

Seafloor ecosystems have unique inhabitants

Each ecosystem in the deep sea is inhabited by certain microorganisms that can be assigned to the three domains of the tree of life: eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria. Eukaryotes have a nucleus and include all plants, fungi, animals and man. Archaea and bacteria are single cells without a nucleus.

The researchers studied the composition and relative abundance of archaea and bacteria at 77 locations of different marine ecosystems, including coastal sediments, deep-sea sediments, black smokers and methane seeps. They extracted the DNA of these organisms from the seabed samples and analyzed it using modern DNA sequencing techniques and mathematical algorithms.

Emil Ruff, scientist at the Max Planck Institute, summarizes: "Almost all of the major groups of archaea and bacteria were present at all examined sites. With increasing resolution, however, the differences between the ecosystems became clearer. At the level of individual species, which are the smallest branches of the tree of life, we found communities that are characteristic for each ecosystem and have a very specific task."

These characteristic communities were defined as the methane seep microbiome. The term microbiome is used to describe all microorganisms of a particular ecosystem and their genetic diversity. Such an ecosystem may be a methane seep, or soil or even the human intestine. The head of the research group, Prof. Dr. Antje Boetius, adds: "This study represents the first global view on microbes inhabiting methane seeps. It was enabled by a large international effort, the International Census of Marine Microbes.”

Methane seeps accommodate many specialists

Natural methane seeps (cold seeps) are found worldwide at continental margins. The gas is formed by decomposition processes in the anoxic layers deep down in the sediment, moves upwards and escapes at the seafloor. The uppermost sediment layers harbor methane oxidizers, which consume about three-quarters of the escaping methane.

This is equivalent to 60 million tons of carbon per year. At methane seeps, the primary energy source is completely different from those of the surrounding seabed. Thus, like oases in the desert methane sources attract particular organisms. These include groups with known function, such as anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). However, the researchers also found microbial groups on the methane sources with unknown function.

Emil Ruff, first author of the study, said: "It was surprising that microorganisms from seeps that are thousands of miles away in different oceans, are so closely related. Many methane oxidizers and sulfate reducers are sensitive to oxygen. Therefore, it is a mystery how they survive the great distances between the methane seeps."

The findings of the researchers suggest that only a few worldwide populations are responsible for the bulk of the methane consumption. The vast diversity of species and the evolution of new species, however, is limited to and can only be found at certain sites. Methane seeps thus contribute greatly to the biodiversity of the deep sea.

Global dispersion and local diversification of the methane seep microbiome
Emil Ruff, Jennifer F. Biddle, Andreas Teske, Katrin Knittel, Antje Boetius, Alban Ramette PNAS 2015, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1421865112.
More information
Emil Ruff, Max Plank Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen: +49 421 2028 942; eruff@mpi-bremen.de

or from the press officer

Manfred Schlösser, Max Plank Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen: +49 421 2028 704 mschloes@mpi-bremen.de

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.mpi-bremen.de

Dr. Manfred Schloesser | Max-Planck-Institut für marine Mikrobiologie

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY

nachricht NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Global study of world's beaches shows threat to protected areas

19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

New creepy, crawly search and rescue robot developed at Ben-Gurion U

19.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Metal too 'gummy' to cut? Draw on it with a Sharpie or glue stick, science says

19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>