It has been known for some time that mutations in the APC gene occur in more than 85 percent of all sporadic colon cancers. Now researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah demonstrate in a study featured today in Cell the mechanism by which mutation of the APC gene affects a cellular process known as DNA methylation. DNA methylation is a chemical modification made to DNA that plays an important role in dictating how DNA is read and interpreted by a cell.
The group, led by David Jones, Ph.D., and Bradley Cairns, Ph.D., have now linked loss of Apc with DNA demethylase, an enzyme system that erases DNA methylation. Studies using human tissues and zebarafish demonstrate that this system is highly active in tissues harboring mutated Apc and may provide an explanation for the previously known loss of DNA methylation seen in early stage tumors. The activity of the DNA demethylase appears to stall the normal development of intestinal cells, leaving them in a stem cell-like state. Normal development was restored upon inhibition of the DNA demethylase system. The experiments conducted by the group also demonstrated that the mechanistic connection between APC mutation and demethylation is conveyed through changes in the amount of retinoic acid (RA), an important regulatory compound derived from dietary vitamin A.
"We believe that clarification of the mechanism leading to demethylation will have broad implications for a variety of cancers. Our increased understanding of the mechanics connecting APC mutation and demethylation presents new opportunities for colon cancer intervention and may lead the way to developing a truly finely tuned approach to treatment," said Jones. Cairns added, "Since the mechanism of action of the demethylase can inherently create new mutations, misregulation of the system could underlie the occurrence of mutations in additional oncogenes. Its inhibition may therefore allow us to both prevent and treat certain cancers."
The mission of Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at The University of Utah is to understand cancer from its beginnings, to use that knowledge in the creation and improvement of cancer treatments, to relieve the suffering of cancer patients, and to provide education about cancer risk, prevention, and care. HCI is a National Cancer Institute-Designated Cancer Center, which means that it meets the highest national standards for cancer care and research and receives support for its scientific endeavors. HCI is also a member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), a not-for-profit alliance of the world's leading cancer centers that is dedicated to improving the quality and effectiveness of care provided to patients with cancer. For more information about HCI, please visit www.huntsmancancer.org.
Linda Aagard | EurekAlert!
The Secret of the Rock Drawings
24.05.2019 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie
Chemical juggling with three particles
24.05.2019 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
A new assessment of NASA's record of global temperatures revealed that the agency's estimate of Earth's long-term temperature rise in recent decades is accurate to within less than a tenth of a degree Fahrenheit, providing confidence that past and future research is correctly capturing rising surface temperatures.
The most complete assessment ever of statistical uncertainty within the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) data product shows that the annual values...
Physicists at the University of Basel are able to show for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. A newly developed method enables them to show the probability of an electron being present in a space. This allows improved control of electron spins, which could serve as the smallest information unit in a future quantum computer. The experiments were published in Physical Review Letters and the related theory in Physical Review B.
The spin of an electron is a promising candidate for use as the smallest information unit (qubit) of a quantum computer. Controlling and switching this spin or...
Engineers at the University of Tokyo continually pioneer new ways to improve battery technology. Professor Atsuo Yamada and his team recently developed a...
With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists from Innsbruck, Austria, open the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. The research groups led by Rainer Blatt and Peter Zoller report in the journal Nature how they simulated particle physics phenomena on 20 quantum bits and how the quantum simulator self-verified the result for the first time.
Many scientists are currently working on investigating how quantum advantage can be exploited on hardware already available today. Three years ago, physicists...
'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing.
However a major challenge in developing these technologies is that the quantum phenomena are very fragile, and only a handful of physical systems have been...
29.04.2019 | Event News
17.04.2019 | Event News
15.04.2019 | Event News
24.05.2019 | Physics and Astronomy
24.05.2019 | Medical Engineering
24.05.2019 | Life Sciences