Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Math technique de-clutters cancer-cell data, revealing tumor evolution, treatment leads

07.06.2013
In our daily lives, clutter is something that gets in our way, something that makes it harder for us to accomplish things. For doctors and scientists trying to parse mountains of raw biological data, clutter is more than a nuisance; it can stand in the way of figuring out how best to treat someone who is very sick.

Using increasingly cheap and rapid methods to read the billions of "letters" that comprise human genomes – including the genomes of individual cells sampled from cancerous tumors -- scientists are generating far more data than they can easily interpret.

Today, two scientists from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) publish a mathematical method of simplifying and interpreting genome data bearing evidence of mutations, such as those that characterize specific cancers. Not only is the technique highly accurate; it has immediate utility in efforts to parse tumor cells, in order to determine a patient's prognosis and the best approach to treatment.

CSHL Assistant Professor Alexander Krasnitz, who developed the new technique jointly with American Cancer Society Professor Michael Wigler, explains that it reduces the burden of interpretation by identifying what he and Wigler call COREs, an acronym for "cores of recurrent events."

krasznitz_diagram2013 When genome sequence data from 100 cells sampled from a single human tumor is analyzed, and the mathematical algorithm devised by Krasnitz and Wigler is applied, the rich structure of the data emerges. This is a "heat map" in which each horizontal row contains data from 1 of the 100 sampled cells; and each vertical column contains information about the presence (black) or absence (no mark) of a "CORE." Each core represents a place in the genome of a particular cell that either has amplified DNA (blue bar, top) or deleted DNA (red bar, top). From the mass of data underlying these phenomena, signatures of 4 subpopulations of tumor cells now become visible. The four groups and their evolutionary relation is shown along the left vertical axis: about half are "green," and are normal; the red group -- consisting of only 4 cells of the 100, turns out, genetically, to be the most mutated and dangerous subgroup in this tumor.

Consider the example of a cancerous breast tumor. Central to the CORE concept is what Krasnitz and Wigler refer to as "intervals." An example of an interval would be a segment of DNA that is missing in the genetic sequence of one or more cells sampled from the tumor. Tumor cells are often missing DNA that should normally be present; or conversely, they often have genome intervals in which the normal DNA sequence is amplified – it appears in multiple copies. Such deletions and amplifications are called copy-number variations, or CNVs.

"In cancer," says Krasnitz, "we find intervals in the genome that are hit again and again. You might see this in many cells coming from a single patient's tumor; or you may see these repeating patterns in cells sampled from many patients with a similar cancer type."

In either case, if you superimpose the location of each "hit" – whether a deletion or an amplification of DNA -- against a map of the full human genome, "you end up with these wobbly pile-ups, stacks of 'hits' at the same locations in the genome."

Due to the vagaries of collecting genome data and a certain amount of small-scale variation in the precise boundaries of the deleted or amplified DNA intervals, the stacks don't line up straight; as Krasnitz says, they look "wobbly." This makes them very hard to accurately interpret.

The CORE method he and Wigler describe in a paper appearing in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences "is a mathematical way of cleaning up this mess and untangling these stacks of data, which often overlap." When data from 100 cells from a single tumor are analyzed, for example, and the mathematical algorithm devised by Krasnitz and Wigler is applied, the regularity of the stacks is revealed, and the rich structure of the data emerges.

In the example of analyzing 100 cells from one tumor, the net result is that populations and subpopulations of cancer cells can be distinguished; and if the cancer has already become metastatic, CORE will be useful in discerning the relations among cancer cell subpopulations in various parts of the body. Such analysis is a potentially valuable guide to prognosis and can also help to make important treatment decisions

"Target inference from collections of genomic intervals" appears online today ahead of print in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The authors are: Alexander Krasnitz, Guoli Sun, Peter Andrews and Michael Wigler. The paper can be obtained online at: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/recent

About Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Founded in 1890, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) has shaped contemporary biomedical research and education with programs in cancer, neuroscience, plant biology and quantitative biology. CSHL is ranked number one in the world by Thomson Reuters for impact of its research in molecular biology and genetics. The Laboratory has been home to eight Nobel Prize winners. Today, CSHL's multidisciplinary scientific community is more than 360 scientists strong and its Meetings & Courses program hosts more than 12,500 scientists from around the world each year to its Long Island campus and its China center. Tens of thousands more benefit from the research, reviews, and ideas published in journals and books distributed internationally by CSHL Press. The Laboratory's education arm also includes a graduate school and programs for undergraduates as well as middle and high school students and teachers. CSHL is a private, not-for-profit institution on the north shore of Long Island. For more information, visit http://www.cshl.edu.

Peter Tarr | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cshl.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Progress in Super-Resolution Microscopy
17.12.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Communication between neural networks
17.12.2018 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Data storage using individual molecules

Researchers from the University of Basel have reported a new method that allows the physical state of just a few atoms or molecules within a network to be controlled. It is based on the spontaneous self-organization of molecules into extensive networks with pores about one nanometer in size. In the journal ‘small’, the physicists reported on their investigations, which could be of particular importance for the development of new storage devices.

Around the world, researchers are attempting to shrink data storage devices to achieve as large a storage capacity in as small a space as possible. In almost...

Im Focus: Data use draining your battery? Tiny device to speed up memory while also saving power

The more objects we make "smart," from watches to entire buildings, the greater the need for these devices to store and retrieve massive amounts of data quickly without consuming too much power.

Millions of new memory cells could be part of a computer chip and provide that speed and energy savings, thanks to the discovery of a previously unobserved...

Im Focus: An energy-efficient way to stay warm: Sew high-tech heating patches to your clothes

Personal patches could reduce energy waste in buildings, Rutgers-led study says

What if, instead of turning up the thermostat, you could warm up with high-tech, flexible patches sewn into your clothes - while significantly reducing your...

Im Focus: Lethal combination: Drug cocktail turns off the juice to cancer cells

A widely used diabetes medication combined with an antihypertensive drug specifically inhibits tumor growth – this was discovered by researchers from the University of Basel’s Biozentrum two years ago. In a follow-up study, recently published in “Cell Reports”, the scientists report that this drug cocktail induces cancer cell death by switching off their energy supply.

The widely used anti-diabetes drug metformin not only reduces blood sugar but also has an anti-cancer effect. However, the metformin dose commonly used in the...

Im Focus: New Foldable Drone Flies through Narrow Holes in Rescue Missions

A research team from the University of Zurich has developed a new drone that can retract its propeller arms in flight and make itself small to fit through narrow gaps and holes. This is particularly useful when searching for victims of natural disasters.

Inspecting a damaged building after an earthquake or during a fire is exactly the kind of job that human rescuers would like drones to do for them. A flying...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

New Plastics Economy Investor Forum - Meeting Point for Innovations

10.12.2018 | Event News

EGU 2019 meeting: Media registration now open

06.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

When a fish becomes fluid

17.12.2018 | Studies and Analyses

Progress in Super-Resolution Microscopy

17.12.2018 | Life Sciences

How electric heating could save CO2 emissions

17.12.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>