The collaborative research team led by Professor Tadashi ISA, Project Assistant Professor Masaharu KINOSHITA from The National Institute for Physiological Sciences, The National Institutes of Natural Sciences and Fukushima Medical University and Kyoto University, developed "the double viral vector transfection technique" which can deliver genes to a specific neural circuit by combining two new kinds of gene transfer vectors.
With this method, they found that "indirect pathways", which were suspected to have been left behind when the direct connection from the brain to motor neurons (which control muscles) was established in the course of evolution, actually plays an important role in the highly developed dexterous hand movements. This study was supported by the Strategic Research Program for Brain Sciences by the MEXT of Japan. This research result will be published in Nature (London) (June 17th, advance online publication).
It is said that the higher primates including human beings accomplished explosive evolution by having acquired the ability to move hands skillfully. It has been thought that this ability to move individual fingers is a result of the evolution of the direct connection from the cerebrocortical motor area to motor neurons of the spinal cord which control the muscles. On the other hand, in lower animals with clumsy hands, such as cats or rats, the cortical motor area is connected to the motor neurons, only through interneurons of the spinal cord. Such "indirect pathway"remains in us, primates, without us fully understanding its functions. Is this "phylogenetically old circuit" still in operation? Or maybe suppressed since it is obstructive? The conclusion was not attached to this argument.
The results revealed that "indirect pathways" play an important role in dexterous hand movements and finally a longtime debate has come to a close.
The key component of this discovery was"the double viral vector transfection technique"in which one vector is retrogradely transported from the terminal zone back to the neuronal cell bodies and the other is transfected at the location of their cell bodies. The expression of the target gene is regulated only in the cells with double transfection by the two vectors. Using this technique, they succeeded in the suppression of the propriospinal neuron selectively and reversibly.
Such an operation was possible in mice in which the inheritable genetic manipulation of germline cells were possible, but impossible in primates until now.
Using this method, further development of gene therapy targeted to a specific neural circuit can be expected.Professor Tadashi ISA says "this newly developed double viral vector transfection technique can be applied to the gene therapy of the human central nervous system, as we are the same higher primates.
This study was supported by the Strategic Research Program for Brain Sciences by the MEXT of Japan, collaborated with Fukushima Medical University and Kyoto University.
Tadashi Isa | EurekAlert!
NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation
Pollen taxi for bacteria
18.07.2018 | Technische Universität München
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
18.07.2018 | Life Sciences
18.07.2018 | Materials Sciences
18.07.2018 | Health and Medicine