Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Lost at sea: Far off the coast, Thioglobus perditus lives off its reserve pack

04.05.2018

SUP05 bacteria are often found in places where there is really no basis for life for them. Researchers in Bremen have now discovered that they are even quite active there – possibly with consequences for the global nitrogen cycle. The bacteria travel with a “reserve pack”. In addition, the researchers have deciphered the bacteria’s genome. The results have now been published in the journal Nature Communications.

The SUP05 bacterial population puzzles researchers. Why, for example, are these microbes found in the open ocean, even though there is no basis for life for them there? SUP05 bacteria use the sulfur compound hydrogen sulfide as a source of energy, and this is mostly only found near the coasts.


View of the Paracas peninsula from the research ship. Here Thioglobus perditus thrive before being flushed further out into the open ocean.

Gaute Lavik, MPIMM


Launch of a glider off the coast of Peru.

Anna Reichel, GEOMAR

Together with the Collaborative Research Center 754 of GEOMAR and the University of Kiel, a group of researchers around Marcel Kuypers from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen has now found some answers: In the sea off Peru during a trip with the research ship Meteor the researchers discovered a representative of the bacterial population that carries its own reserve of sulfur.

In addition the researchers succeeded in deciphering the entire genome of the bacterium. The microbe has quasi received an identification card. Name: Thioglobus perditus, analogous to the “lost sulfur ball“. “Following the decoding of the genome we then developed a gene test, with the help of which we are now able to identify this microbe precisely”, says Cameron Callbeck, first author of the study, who has meanwhile moved from the MPI Bremen to the Swiss Eawag.

Thioglobus perditus transforms sulfide to sulfate using nitrate to breath, and obtains the energy for life from this chemical transformation. The bacteria is distributed worldwide in coastal upwelling regions where hydrogen sulfide diffuses upward from the seafloor.

There the Thioglobus perditus metabolism performs ecologically important services: the reaction converts not only sulfide, which is poisonous for other organisms, to its less toxic elemental sulfur form, but also removes carbon dioxide and transforms nitrate to non-reactive dinitrogen gas.

Now the researchers in Bremen have discovered that the bacterium is not only active in coastal regions. Repeatedly, SUP05 bacteria have also been found further out at sea in waters containing no dissolved sulfide. But how can the organism exist under such sub-optimal conditions?

“Nobody really knew what they are doing there. Are they active at all?“, asks Gaute Lavik from the Max Planck Institute in Bremen, cruise leader of the Meteor journey. With nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry, in short NanoSIMS, researchers have for the first time undertaken measurements of individual Thioglobus perditus bacteria cells in the environment. T

he researchers were thus able to directly gain insights into the biochemical processes operating in the individual SUP05 cells in the environment. These bacteria seem to carry a reserve pack of elemental sulfur. They furthermore possess the necessary cellular machinery to transform elemental sulfur. If the currents carry Thioglobus perditus off the coast to the open sea, the microbe presumably lives off these reserves. As sulfur disappears from the water, the bacteria also vanish.

“The ability to store and grow on elemental sulfur enables the Thioglobus perditus cells also to remain active far from sulfide-rich coastal waters, at least for a limited time”, says co-author Tim Ferdelman from the Bremer Max Planck Institute. “As part of the current study we have for the first time determined how quickly individual cells of SUP05 bacteria take-up carbon dioxide in the environment, and thus grow in these waters. This makes them potentially interesting actors in the global cycles of carbon and nitrogen”, says Ferdelman.

Original publication:

Cameron Callbeck, Gaute Lavik, Timothy G. Ferdelman, Bernhard Fuchs, Harald R. Gruber-Vodicka, Philipp F. Hach, Sten Littmann, Niels S. Schoffelen, Tim Kalvelage, Soren Thomsen, Harald Schnuck, Carolin Löscher, Ruth A. Schmitz, Marcel M. M. Kuypers: “Oxygen minimum zone‚ cryptic sulfur cycling sustained by offshore transport of key sulfur oxidizing bacteria”. Nature Communications
doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04041-x

Participating institutes:

Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
Institute of General Microbiology, University of Kiel

The study was developed as part of the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 754 “Climate-Biogeochemistry interactions in the Tropical Ocean”, a cooperation project of the Christian Albrechts University of Kiel and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel.

The Collaborative Research Centre 754 (SFB 754) “Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean” has been funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) since 2008. This project involves scientists from the Christian Albrechts University Kiel (CAU), GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel and the Max Planck Institute Bremen.

NanoSIMS: Deep view into the cell

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a method from surface physics used to examine the composition of fixed surfaces and thin layers. The further developed nanoscale secondary ions mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) has a special optical design that makes a spatial dissolution of ca. 50 nanometres possible. This is a twentieth a millionth of a metre.
The large equipment at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen is one of some twenty such devices worldwide. These are mainly employed in meteorite and material science. In Bremen, the workings of biological structures and individual cells were researched for the first time.

UThioglobus perditus: Identified but not cultivated

The researchers in Bremen have identified the genome of the protozoon SUP05. Thanks to this genome, they were able to give it a proper biological name: Thioglobus perditus – inspired through the fact that the “globus” bacteria bind sulfur (thio) compounds and are active not only offshore but also further out at sea, that they are so-to-say “lost” (perditus) at sea.
Technically speaking before the Latin designation there is a superscript U. In the system of biological nomenclature this stands for “uncultivated”. It means that the biological species Thioglobus perditus can certainly be genetically identified, but it cannot be enriched in a pure laboratory culture. Such microbes for example need unknown additional substances to grow, or they depend on interactions with other organisms from their surroundings.

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.mpi-bremen.de

Dr. Fanni Aspetsberger | Max-Planck-Institut für Marine Mikrobiologie

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Barium ruthenate: A high-yield, easy-to-handle perovskite catalyst for the oxidation of sulfides
16.07.2018 | Tokyo Institute of Technology

nachricht The secret sulfate code that lets the bad Tau in
16.07.2018 | American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Subaru Telescope helps pinpoint origin of ultra-high energy neutrino

16.07.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Barium ruthenate: A high-yield, easy-to-handle perovskite catalyst for the oxidation of sulfides

16.07.2018 | Life Sciences

New research calculates capacity of North American forests to sequester carbon

16.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>