Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New light shed on marine luminescence

23.02.2009
The mystery of how some marine animals produce light has come one step closer to being solved. Researchers at the University of Gothenburg have discovered that krill, the luminous crustacean, can use special and previously unknown muscles to regulate light intensity.

The phenomenon of light emission by living organisms, bioluminescence, is quite common, especially in marine species. It is known that light is generated by chemical reactions in which oxygen molecules play an important part.

In the animal world, these chemical reactions take place in special luminescent cells called photocytes. These are aggregated into complex light organs, in which the intensity of light is regulated by nerve impulses, and in which light can be modulated with the help of reflectors, lenses and filters. By these means, organisms can adjust the wavelength, diffusion and intensity of light according to need. But the exact mechanisms behind these processes remain shrouded in mystery.

Jenny Krönström, a researcher at the Department of Zoology of the University of Gothenburg has put another piece of the jigsaw puzzle in place by investigating the light organs of marine jellyfish, crustaceans and fish. In her thesis she reveals that krill, the luminescent crustacean, is equipped with special muscles that regulate light intensity through contraction and relaxation.

Nitric oxide is also thought to play an important role in the bioluminescence of krill. It is produced in the small capillary vessels that keep the krill's photocytes supplied with oxygen, as well as in special closure muscles, sphincters, that are located at the point where these capillaries distribute blood to the photocytes. Experiments with agents that make the sphincters contract or relax show that when the sphincters relax, the krill begins to luminesce, presumably because of the increased flow of oxygenated blood to the photocytes.

As bioluminescence has developed independently at several different points in evolution, different species have developed different methods of regulating and emitting light. Jenny Krönström's research demonstrates that nitric oxide also has different effects in different species. In the remarkable deep sea Silver Hatchetfish (Argyropelecus olfersii) nitric oxide inhibits the light reaction, whilst in the Plain Midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) it has an opposite, stimulating effect.

Biological light is not only useful to the organism itself as a biological torch, camouflage or as a means of communication; the substances that are involved in the chemical luminescent reaction have also shown themselves to be useful in modern molecular biology, in which the discovery of green fluorescent protein, which produces green light in jellyfish, led to the Nobel Prize in Chemistry as recently as 2008.

The thesis "Control of bioluminescence: Operating the light switch in photophores from marine animals" was defended on February 20th 2009.

Images: The Silver Hatchetfish (Argyropelecus olfersii) and "light-switch" muscles of the luminescent krill.

For further information, please contact:
Jenny Krönström, Department of Zoology, University of Gothenburg.
+46 (0)703 960763
jenny.kronstrom@zool.gu.se

Krister Svahn | idw
Further information:
http://www.science.gu.se

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht O2 stable hydrogenases for applications
23.07.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Energiekonversion

nachricht Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers

A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

The Maturation Pattern of the Hippocampus Drives Human Memory Deve

23.07.2018 | Science Education

FAU researchers identify Parkinson's disease as a possible autoimmune disease

23.07.2018 | Health and Medicine

O2 stable hydrogenases for applications

23.07.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>