Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Latest genomic studies shed new light on maize diversity and evolution

04.06.2012
2 separate studies published online in the same issue of Nature Genetics
Shenzhen, China ¨C BGI, the world's largest genomics organization, together with other 17 international institutes, announced that they completed the second generation of maize HapMap (Maize HapMap2) and genomics studies on maize domestication and improvement. The two separate studies were published online in the same issue of Nature Genetics.

The studies mark an important milestone in Maize (Zeamays) genomics research, providing an unprecedented glimpse into maize's 'wonderful diversity' and revealing new insights into the evolutionary history of maize genome. These studies will provide valuable insights for botanists and breeders worldwide and facilitate the genetic engineering of this vital cereal crop in the world.
In addition to BGI, the other collaborative organizations include U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, University of California Davis, Cornell University, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), and others.

Characterizing Maize's Impressive Diversity
Maize's impressive diversity has been attracting much attention in the academic community and agricultural sector. However, characterizing this diversity- in particular at high levels- has been technically challenging. In this study, researchers developed a novel population-genetics scoring model for comprehensively characterizing the genetic variations, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), small insertion-deletions, and structural variations (SVs). Through the comprehensive analysis, about 55 million SNPs were identified across 103 inbred lines of wild and domesticated maize. They also found that SVs were prevalent throughout the maize genome and were associated with some important agronomic traits, such as those involved in leaf development and disease resistance.
The researchers also investigated the major factors that influence the maize genome size. The results showed the genome size variations between maize and Gama grass (Tripsacum dactyloides), maize's sister genus, are mostly driven by the abundance of transposable elements (TE). In contrast with the fact that the intra-species genome size variation is influenced by the DNA structure known aschromosomal knobs. In addition to the differences, there is tremendous unity of gene content between maize relatives, suggesting that the adaptations, such as frost and drought tolerance, amongst all of maize's relatives are likely integratable in maize.

Tracing Maize's Evolution and Improvement

Since maize was domesticated approximately 10,000 year ago, its wild progenitor went through a particular transformation that had radically altered maize's wild species to meet human's needs. To comprehensively trace maize's evolution process, researchers sequenced 75 wild, landrace and modern maize lines. Through the comparative population genomics analysis, they found the evidence of new genetic diversity that has arisen since domestication, maybe due to the introgression from wild relatives. They also identified a number of genes that obviously had played important roles in the transition from wild to domesticated maize.

More importantly, the results demonstrated that the selection applied by ancient farmers seemed to play a stronger impact on maize evolution than the breeding techniques adopted by modern breeders. Hybridization in agriculture is vitally important to maintain genetic diversity, and sustains the quality and yield of a crop. In this study, researchers found that many of the changes in the patterns of gene expression had been concentrated in the genes selected for heterosis by modern breeding techniques. These findings suggest that modern breeders should devote more efforts to make effective improvement on candidates by introducing more diversity at the regions linked with selection.

Dr. Xun Xu, Deputy Director of BGI, said, "Genetic improvement of crops is the key output of breeding research. The two studies provide a new way to comprehensively understand maize's genetic diversity and evolutionary history as well as offer an invaluable guidance for botanists and breeders to improve this vital crop."

Dr. Gengyun Zhang, Vice President of BGI, said, "Maize is one of the world's most important crops. The two studies will provide a valuable foundation for accelerating the improvement of maize towards meeting the world's increasing demands for food, livestock feed and biofuel. We look forward to achieve more breakthrough for solving the food security challenges and environmental problems in the near future."
About BGI

BGI was founded in Beijing, China, in 1999 with the mission to become a premier scientific partner for the global research community. The goal of BGI is to make leading-edge genomic science highly accessible, which it achieves through its investment in infrastructure, leveraging the best available technology, economies of scale and expert bioinformatics resources. BGI, and its affiliates¡ªBGI Americas, headquartered in Cambridge, MA, and BGI Europe, headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark¡ªhave established partnerships and collaborations with leading academic and government research institutions as well as global biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, supporting a variety of disease, agricultural, environmental and related applications.

BGI has a proven track record of excellence, delivering results with high efficiency and accuracy for innovative, high-profile research; research that has generated over 170 publications in top-tier journals such as Nature and Science. BGI's many accomplishments include: sequencing one percent of the human genome for the International Human Genome Project, contributing 10 percent to the International Human HapMap Project, carrying out research to combat SARS and German deadly E. coli, playing a key role in the Sino-British Chicken Genome Project, and completing the sequence of the rice genome, the silkworm genome, the first Asian diploid genome, the potato genome, and, more recently, have sequenced the human Gut Metagenome and a significant proportion of the genomes for the 1000 Genomes Project.

For more information about BGI, please visit www.genomics.cn

Media Contacts£º

Gengyun Zhang
Vice President of BGI
zhanggengyun@genomics.cn
Xun Xu
Deputy Director of BGI
xuxun@genomics.cn
Bicheng Yang
Public Communication Officer
+86-755-82639701
yangbicheng@genomics.cn

Jia Liu | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.genomics.cn

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Storage & Transport of highly volatile Gases made safer & cheaper by the use of “Kinetic Trapping"

Augsburg chemists present a new technology for compressing, storing and transporting highly volatile gases in porous frameworks/New prospects for gas-powered vehicles

Storage of highly volatile gases has always been a major technological challenge, not least for use in the automotive sector, for, for example, methane or...

Im Focus: Disrupting crystalline order to restore superfluidity

When we put water in a freezer, water molecules crystallize and form ice. This change from one phase of matter to another is called a phase transition. While this transition, and countless others that occur in nature, typically takes place at the same fixed conditions, such as the freezing point, one can ask how it can be influenced in a controlled way.

We are all familiar with such control of the freezing transition, as it is an essential ingredient in the art of making a sorbet or a slushy. To make a cold...

Im Focus: Micro energy harvesters for the Internet of Things

Fraunhofer IWS Dresden scientists print electronic layers with polymer ink

Thin organic layers provide machines and equipment with new functions. They enable, for example, tiny energy recuperators. In future, these will be installed...

Im Focus: Dynamik einzelner Proteine

Neue Messmethode erlaubt es Forschenden, die Bewegung von Molekülen lange und genau zu verfolgen

Das Zusammenspiel aus Struktur und Dynamik bestimmt die Funktion von Proteinen, den molekularen Werkzeugen der Zelle. Durch Fortschritte in der...

Im Focus: Dynamics of individual proteins

New measurement method allows researchers to precisely follow the movement of individual molecules over long periods of time

The function of proteins – the molecular tools of the cell – is governed by the interplay of their structure and dynamics. Advances in electron microscopy have...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

5th International Conference on Cellular Materials (CellMAT), Scientific Programme online

02.10.2018 | Event News

Major Project: The New Silk Road

01.10.2018 | Event News

"Boston calling": TU Berlin and the Weizenbaum Institute organize a conference in USA

21.09.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Physics: Not everything is where it seems to be

15.10.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Microfluidic molecular exchanger helps control therapeutic cell manufacturing

15.10.2018 | Life Sciences

Link between Gut Flora and Multiple Sclerosis Discovered

15.10.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>