Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Immunity mechanism discovered

19.06.2013
Scientists at the University of Calgary's Faculty of Medicine have discovered a mechanism that is used to protect the body from harmful bacteria.
Platelets, a component of blood typically associated with clotting, were discovered to actively search for specific bacteria, and upon detection, seal it off from the rest of the body. The findings, which were published in Nature Immunology this week, provide the science community with a greater understanding of immunity.

"The science community has known that platelets do participate in immunity, but now it's been demonstrated that they have a way of actively searching for bacteria," says Craig Jenne, PhD, one of the authors of the study and a member of the university's Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases.

The vast majority of bacteria in the blood stream is trapped by the liver in a network of specialized cells known as Kupffer cells. Once trapped, a series of immune processes take place to eradicate the bacteria; however, this can take several hours, lending time to harmful bacteria to multiply and release toxins into the neighboring cells, subsequently causing infection and cell damage and death.
"Upon entering the blood stream, bacteria can start to divide within several minutes," he says. "So if you're waiting for the immune system to deal with it, the bacteria could become an infection before it gets there."

Through imaging of the liver in animal models, scientists discovered that platelets are constantly interacting with the Kupffer cells by 'touching' them to search for captured bacteria. If nothing is detected, or if the bacteria isn't deemed particularly harmful, the platelets will move on; however, if harmful bacteria is detected, the platelets will bind to it, sealing it off from the body until the immune system can rid the bacteria altogether. This happens within seconds of cell capture and thus reduces the likelihood of infection.

"If this instantaneous response didn't exist, it could be a matter of life and death," he says.

Interestingly, it was observed that while this touch-and-go mechanism is happening continuously, platelets only appear to create this barrier around particularly harmful bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA can lead to serious and potential fatal conditions such as sepsis, and is spread through skin to skin contact.

"We now have a completely different angle of how the immune system deals with specific types of bacteria," says study author Paul Kubes, PhD, who is also director of the Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases. "Going forth we can begin to look at how we can help our own defenses deal with these types of bacteria."

To watch two different videos of the mechanism visit: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cUpIkSXoQUY (platelets searching for bacteria)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcGOQpzTlT0 (platelets encapsulating pathogens)

Kathryn Sloniowski | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucalgary.ca

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation

nachricht Pollen taxi for bacteria
18.07.2018 | Technische Universität München

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts

18.07.2018 | Life Sciences

Machine-learning predicted a superhard and high-energy-density tungsten nitride

18.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

Why might reading make myopic?

18.07.2018 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>