In collaboration with colleagues from California and New York, researchers of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified a cytosolic receptor which enables cells of the immune system to recognize HIV and to trigger an immune response. The findings of the researchers may be a useful tool for creating an effective endogenous immune response against HIV and helpful to boost vaccine responses. Cell reports on the results of this research work in its online edition of 04.06.2015.
Particular immune cells of the body called dendritic cells are in principle capable of recognizing HIV-1 as foreign invader. HIV-1, usually just referred to as HIV, causes the immune deficiency disease AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
Up to now, it has been unclear how the cells identify the virus as "foreign". In collaboration with colleagues from the Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, Dr Renate König, head of the research group "Cellular Aspects of Pathogen-Host Interactions" at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut and her research team have discovered that polyglutamine binding protein 1 plays an important role in this mechanism.
They have demonstrated that this protein recognizes and binds to specific retroviral DNA. Although the genome of retroviruses, which also includes HIV, is normally present as RNA, it must first be transcribed into DNA, before it can integrate into the genome of the host cell. PQBP1 binds to the viral DNA and, moreover, binds to an additional protein called cyclic GMP-AMP synthase. It is not until this connection has been made that cGAS can activate a signal pathway which in turn activates the innate immune system and in turn, the specific immune system.
"With PQBP1, we have identified an important receptor which mediates the recognition of HIV by the cell and the immune system", as Dr König described the research results. Up to now, it was assumed that cGAS alone was able to recognize foreign DNA. The researchers were now able to identify an additional important module in this mechanism.
Without PQBP1, dendritic cells are unable to recognize HIV. This was shown by Dr König and colleagues by investigating blood samples taken from patients suffering from Renpenning syndrome. In patients with this neurodegenerative disorder, the gene for PQBP1 has mutated and the protein is therefore not functional. The retroviral DNA of these patients’ immune cells could not bind to the protein so in turn cGAS signaling is not activated.
In principle, dendritic cells harbor the mechanism described here, which permits the activation of an immune response after the contact with retroviral DNA. Thus, the identified mechanism may guide potential treatment approaches. As Dr König explained the possible benefit from the findings: "Activation of this mechanism by an adjuvant could improve the immune response against HIV in the body and could thus also be used in immune therapy".
Yoh SM, Schneider M, Seifried J, Soonthomvacharin S, Akleh RE, Olivieri KC, De Jesus PD, Ruan de Castro CE, Ruiz PA, Germanaud D, des Portes V, García-Sastre A, König R, Chanda SK (2015): PQBP1 is a Proximal Sensor of HIV-1 DNA and Initiates cGAS-dependent Innate Immune Signaling.
Cell Jun 4 [Epub ahead of print].
The Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, the Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedicines, in Langen near Frankfurt/Main is a senior federal authority reporting to the Federal Ministry of Health (Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, BMG). It is responsible for the research, assessment, and marketing authorisation of biomedicines for human use and immunological veterinary medicinal products. Its remit also includes the authorisation of clinical trials and pharmacovigilance, i.e. recording and evaluation of potential adverse effects.
Other duties of the institute include official batch control, scientific advice and inspections. In-house experimental research in the field of biomedicines and life science form an indispensable basis for the manifold tasks performed at the institute.
The Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, with its roughly 800 members of staff, also has advisory functions nationally (federal government, federal states (Länder)), and internationally (World Health Organisation, European Medicines Agency, European Commission, Council of Europe etc.).
http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674%2815%2900525-5 Publication (Abstract)
http://www.pei.de/EN/information/journalists-press/press-releases/2015/07-identi... This Press Release on the PEI-Website
Dr. Susanne Stöcker | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY
NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation
A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.
The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
20.07.2018 | Information Technology
20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences