Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Human MAIT cells sense the metabolic state of enteric bacteria

09.05.2018

A little-explored group of immune cells plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal bacteria. Changing metabolic states of the microbes have an effect on defense cells at different stages of alert or rest, as researchers from the Department of Biomedicine at the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the journal "Mucosal Immunology."

It is known that the metabolites of bacteria influence the composition and function of immune cells resident within the gut. These defense cells include MAIT cells (mucosal-associated invariant T cells), which were only recently discovered and are naturally abundant in the gastrointestinal mucosa, skin liver, and blood. These cells are specialized in recognizing the microorganisms living in every human being and monitoring their activities.


Clusters of MAIT cells in human blood and colon biopsies. Subpopulations of these defense cells group into colored "continents" according to the markers expressed by the cells.

Department of Biomedicine, Tobias Rutishauser

Different populations in gut vs. blood

A group led by Prof. Dr. Gennaro De Libero from the University of Basel and PD Dr. Petr Hruz from the University Hospital of Basel have investigated how MAIT cell activation and function is influenced by bacterial metabolites produced in normal colon. The study revealed that distinct populations of MAIT cells are located in the human intestinal mucosa. These populations were identified in gut biopsies using highly innovative methods and bioinformatics analyses.

Result: MAIT cells are present in variable states of alert and rest, in accordance with the metabolic state of intestinal bacterial flora. The defense cells are most frequently stimulated by bacteria grown under low-oxygen and slow growth-phase - conditions such as those found in the large intestine. MAIT cells can then directly influence local inflammation but also tissue healing and cell fitness in the gut by producing different messenger substances.

“Fine balance”

"Our results show that there is a fine balance occurring in the gut between microbial growth conditions, the production of stimulating metabolites and the response of MAIT defense cells," state the researchers. The metabolism of microbes in the intestine constantly adapts to changing host conditions. By detecting the metabolic state of enteric bacteria, MAIT cells can potentiate their function in mucosal immunosurveillance.

Original source

Mathias Schmaler et al.
Modulation of bacterial metabolism by the microenvironment controls MAIT cell stimulation
Mucosal Immunology (2018), doi: 10.1038/s41385-018-0020-9

Further information

Prof. Dr. Gennaro De Libero, University of Basel, Department of Biomedicine, phone: +41 61 265 23 65, email: gennaro.delibero@unibas.ch
Dr. Lucia Mori, University of Basel, Department of Biomedicine, phone: +41 61 265 23 27, email: lucia.mori@unibas.ch

Iris Mickein | Universität Basel
Further information:
http://www.unibas.ch

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht AI-driven single blood cell classification: New method to support physicians in leukemia diagnostics
13.11.2019 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Small RNAs link immune system and brain cells
13.11.2019 | Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Magnets for the second dimension

If you've ever tried to put several really strong, small cube magnets right next to each other on a magnetic board, you'll know that you just can't do it. What happens is that the magnets always arrange themselves in a column sticking out vertically from the magnetic board. Moreover, it's almost impossible to join several rows of these magnets together to form a flat surface. That's because magnets are dipolar. Equal poles repel each other, with the north pole of one magnet always attaching itself to the south pole of another and vice versa. This explains why they form a column with all the magnets aligned the same way.

Now, scientists at ETH Zurich have managed to create magnetic building blocks in the shape of cubes that - for the first time ever - can be joined together to...

Im Focus: A new quantum data classification protocol brings us nearer to a future 'quantum internet'

The algorithm represents a first step in the automated learning of quantum information networks

Quantum-based communication and computation technologies promise unprecedented applications, such as unconditionally secure communications, ultra-precise...

Im Focus: Distorted Atoms

In two experiments performed at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg a cooperation led by physicists from the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute for Nuclear physics (MPIK) demonstrated strongly-driven nonlinear interaction of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) laser pulses with atoms and ions. The powerful excitation of an electron pair in helium was found to compete with the ultrafast decay, which temporarily may even lead to population inversion. Resonant transitions in doubly charged neon ions were shifted in energy, and observed by XUV-XUV pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy.

An international team led by physicists from the MPIK reports on new results for efficient two-electron excitations in helium driven by strong and ultrashort...

Im Focus: A Memory Effect at Single-Atom Level

An international research group has observed new quantum properties on an artificial giant atom and has now published its results in the high-ranking journal Nature Physics. The quantum system under investigation apparently has a memory - a new finding that could be used to build a quantum computer.

The research group, consisting of German, Swedish and Indian scientists, has investigated an artificial quantum system and found new properties.

Im Focus: Shedding new light on the charging of lithium-ion batteries

Exposing cathodes to light decreases charge time by a factor of two in lithium-ion batteries.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have reported a new mechanism to speed up the charging of lithium-ion...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

High entropy alloys for hot turbines and tireless metal-forming presses

05.11.2019 | Event News

Smart lasers open up new applications and are the “tool of choice” in digitalization

30.10.2019 | Event News

International Symposium on Functional Materials for Electrolysis, Fuel Cells and Metal-Air Batteries

02.10.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Magnets for the second dimension

12.11.2019 | Machine Engineering

New efficiency world record for organic solar modules

12.11.2019 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Non-volatile control of magnetic anisotropy through change of electric polarization

12.11.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>