Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Human MAIT cells sense the metabolic state of enteric bacteria

09.05.2018

A little-explored group of immune cells plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal bacteria. Changing metabolic states of the microbes have an effect on defense cells at different stages of alert or rest, as researchers from the Department of Biomedicine at the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the journal "Mucosal Immunology."

It is known that the metabolites of bacteria influence the composition and function of immune cells resident within the gut. These defense cells include MAIT cells (mucosal-associated invariant T cells), which were only recently discovered and are naturally abundant in the gastrointestinal mucosa, skin liver, and blood. These cells are specialized in recognizing the microorganisms living in every human being and monitoring their activities.


Clusters of MAIT cells in human blood and colon biopsies. Subpopulations of these defense cells group into colored "continents" according to the markers expressed by the cells.

Department of Biomedicine, Tobias Rutishauser

Different populations in gut vs. blood

A group led by Prof. Dr. Gennaro De Libero from the University of Basel and PD Dr. Petr Hruz from the University Hospital of Basel have investigated how MAIT cell activation and function is influenced by bacterial metabolites produced in normal colon. The study revealed that distinct populations of MAIT cells are located in the human intestinal mucosa. These populations were identified in gut biopsies using highly innovative methods and bioinformatics analyses.

Result: MAIT cells are present in variable states of alert and rest, in accordance with the metabolic state of intestinal bacterial flora. The defense cells are most frequently stimulated by bacteria grown under low-oxygen and slow growth-phase - conditions such as those found in the large intestine. MAIT cells can then directly influence local inflammation but also tissue healing and cell fitness in the gut by producing different messenger substances.

“Fine balance”

"Our results show that there is a fine balance occurring in the gut between microbial growth conditions, the production of stimulating metabolites and the response of MAIT defense cells," state the researchers. The metabolism of microbes in the intestine constantly adapts to changing host conditions. By detecting the metabolic state of enteric bacteria, MAIT cells can potentiate their function in mucosal immunosurveillance.

Original source

Mathias Schmaler et al.
Modulation of bacterial metabolism by the microenvironment controls MAIT cell stimulation
Mucosal Immunology (2018), doi: 10.1038/s41385-018-0020-9

Further information

Prof. Dr. Gennaro De Libero, University of Basel, Department of Biomedicine, phone: +41 61 265 23 65, email: gennaro.delibero@unibas.ch
Dr. Lucia Mori, University of Basel, Department of Biomedicine, phone: +41 61 265 23 27, email: lucia.mori@unibas.ch

Iris Mickein | Universität Basel
Further information:
http://www.unibas.ch

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Study clarifies kinship of important plant group
05.08.2020 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht Human cell-based test systems for toxicity studies: Ready-to-use Toxicity Assay (hiPSC)
05.08.2020 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Biomedizinische Technik IBMT

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New Strategy Against Osteoporosis

An international research team has found a new approach that may be able to reduce bone loss in osteoporosis and maintain bone health.

Osteoporosis is the most common age-related bone disease which affects hundreds of millions of individuals worldwide. It is estimated that one in three women...

Im Focus: AI & single-cell genomics

New software predicts cell fate

Traditional single-cell sequencing methods help to reveal insights about cellular differences and functions - but they do this with static snapshots only...

Im Focus: TU Graz Researchers synthesize nanoparticles tailored for special applications

“Core-shell” clusters pave the way for new efficient nanomaterials that make catalysts, magnetic and laser sensors or measuring devices for detecting electromagnetic radiation more efficient.

Whether in innovative high-tech materials, more powerful computer chips, pharmaceuticals or in the field of renewable energies, nanoparticles – smallest...

Im Focus: Tailored light inspired by nature

An international research team with Prof. Cornelia Denz from the Institute of Applied Physics at the University of Münster develop for the first time light fields using caustics that do not change during propagation. With the new method, the physicists cleverly exploit light structures that can be seen in rainbows or when light is transmitted through drinking glasses.

Modern applications as high resolution microsopy or micro- or nanoscale material processing require customized laser beams that do not change during...

Im Focus: NYUAD astrophysicist investigates the possibility of life below the surface of Mars

  • A rover expected to explore below the surface of Mars in 2022 has the potential to provide more insights
  • The findings published in Scientific Reports, Springer Nature suggests the presence of traces of water on Mars, raising the question of the possibility of a life-supporting environment

Although no life has been detected on the Martian surface, a new study from astrophysicist and research scientist at the Center for Space Science at NYU Abu...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2020”: The final touches for surfaces

23.07.2020 | Event News

Conference radar for cybersecurity

21.07.2020 | Event News

Contact Tracing Apps against COVID-19: German National Academy Leopoldina hosts international virtual panel discussion

07.07.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Manifestation of quantum distance in flat band materials

05.08.2020 | Physics and Astronomy

Discovery shows promise for treating Huntington's Disease

05.08.2020 | Health and Medicine

Rock debris protects glaciers from climate change more than previously known

05.08.2020 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>