Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

How Plants Form Their Seeds

20.12.2017

Vegetable, fruit, or grain – the majority of our food results from plant reproduction. Researchers at UZH have now discovered the key to how plants regulate pollen growth and seed formation. In addition to seed formation, knowledge about these signaling pathways can be used to influence plant growth or their defense against pests.

Around 80 to 85 percent of our calorie needs is covered through seeds, either directly as food or indirectly through use as feed. Seeds are the result of plant reproduction. During the flowering period, the male and female tissues interact with each other in a number of ways.


Pollen tubes with internalized, fluorescence-labelled signal substances (RALF peptides).

UZH

When pollen lands on the flower’s stigma, it germinates and forms a pollen tube, which then quickly grows towards the plant’s ovary. Once it finds an ovule, the pollen tube bursts to release sperm cells, which fertilize the ovule and initiate seed formation.

Pollen tube interacts with female plant tissue

Led by Ueli Grossniklaus, professor at the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology at the University of Zurich, an international research team has now demonstrated how the pollen tube interacts with, and responds to, female plant tissue. The pollen tube does so by secreting extracellular signals (RALF peptides) which it uses to explore its cellular environment and regulate its growth. Two receptors on the cell’s surface enable it to perceive the secreted signals and transmit them to the inside of the cell.

Intracellular signals regulate growth

Working together with the teams of Christoph Ringli from UZH and Jorge Muschietti from the University of Buenos Aires, the team around Grossniklaus was able to determine that further proteins had to be active for the pollen tube to recognize the signals – LRX proteins. These proteins were identified at UZH 15 years ago by Beat Keller and his research group, but their function had previously not been clear. LRX proteins are localized in the cell wall surrounding plant cells, where the signals can dock.

“We suspect that the pollen tube explores changes in the cell wall by sending out signals and responding accordingly, for example by realigning its growth,” says Ueli Grossniklaus. It is rare for plants to produce and perceive signals with the same cells. The researchers suspect that this allows the pollen tube, which grows extremely quickly, to faster respond to changes in its environment rather than being dependent on signals from other neighboring cells.

Molecular insights open up wide range of potential applications

The signaling pathways described by the researchers are involved in many other basic processes, and knowledge of how they work opens up numerous possible applications for plant breeding. “By better understanding how these proteins work, we can not only influence pollination and seed formation, but also the development and growth of plants or their defense against pests,” concludes Ueli Grossniklaus.

Literature:
Martin A. Mecchia, Gorka Santos-Fernandez, Nadine N. Duss, Sofía C. Somoza, Aurélien Boisson-Dernier, Valeria Gagliardini, Andrea Martínez-Bernardini, Tohnyui Ndinyanka Fabrice, Christoph Ringli, Jorge P. Muschietti, Ueli Grossniklaus. RALF4/19 peptides interact with LRX proteins to control pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis. December 14, 2017. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aao5467

Contact:
Prof. Ueli Grossniklaus, PhD
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
University of Zurich
Phone +41 44 634 82 40
E-mail: grossnik@botinst.uzh.ch

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.media.uzh.ch/en/Press-Releases/2017/Seeds-forming.html

Kurt Bodenmüller | Universität Zürich

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Switch-in-a-cell electrifies life
18.12.2018 | Rice University

nachricht Plant biologists identify mechanism behind transition from insect to wind pollination
18.12.2018 | University of Toronto

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Data storage using individual molecules

Researchers from the University of Basel have reported a new method that allows the physical state of just a few atoms or molecules within a network to be controlled. It is based on the spontaneous self-organization of molecules into extensive networks with pores about one nanometer in size. In the journal ‘small’, the physicists reported on their investigations, which could be of particular importance for the development of new storage devices.

Around the world, researchers are attempting to shrink data storage devices to achieve as large a storage capacity in as small a space as possible. In almost...

Im Focus: Data use draining your battery? Tiny device to speed up memory while also saving power

The more objects we make "smart," from watches to entire buildings, the greater the need for these devices to store and retrieve massive amounts of data quickly without consuming too much power.

Millions of new memory cells could be part of a computer chip and provide that speed and energy savings, thanks to the discovery of a previously unobserved...

Im Focus: An energy-efficient way to stay warm: Sew high-tech heating patches to your clothes

Personal patches could reduce energy waste in buildings, Rutgers-led study says

What if, instead of turning up the thermostat, you could warm up with high-tech, flexible patches sewn into your clothes - while significantly reducing your...

Im Focus: Lethal combination: Drug cocktail turns off the juice to cancer cells

A widely used diabetes medication combined with an antihypertensive drug specifically inhibits tumor growth – this was discovered by researchers from the University of Basel’s Biozentrum two years ago. In a follow-up study, recently published in “Cell Reports”, the scientists report that this drug cocktail induces cancer cell death by switching off their energy supply.

The widely used anti-diabetes drug metformin not only reduces blood sugar but also has an anti-cancer effect. However, the metformin dose commonly used in the...

Im Focus: New Foldable Drone Flies through Narrow Holes in Rescue Missions

A research team from the University of Zurich has developed a new drone that can retract its propeller arms in flight and make itself small to fit through narrow gaps and holes. This is particularly useful when searching for victims of natural disasters.

Inspecting a damaged building after an earthquake or during a fire is exactly the kind of job that human rescuers would like drones to do for them. A flying...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

New Plastics Economy Investor Forum - Meeting Point for Innovations

10.12.2018 | Event News

EGU 2019 meeting: Media registration now open

06.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Pressure tuned magnetism paves the way for novel electronic devices

18.12.2018 | Materials Sciences

New type of low-energy nanolaser that shines in all directions

18.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

NASA research reveals Saturn is losing its rings at 'worst-case-scenario' rate

18.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>