Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Glue, fly, Glue: Underwater Silk for Surgical Sutures?

01.03.2010
Like silkworm moths, butterflies and spiders, caddisfly larvae spin silk, but they do so underwater instead on dry land. Now, University of Utah researchers have discovered why the fly's silk is sticky when wet and how that may make it valuable as an adhesive tape during surgery.

"Silk from caddisfly larvae – known to western fly fishermen as 'rock rollers' – may be useful some day as a medical bioadhesive for sticking to wet tissues," says Russell Stewart, an associate professor of bioengineering and principal author of a new study of the fly silk's chemical and structural properties.

"I picture it as sort of a wet Band-Aid, maybe used internally in surgery – like using a piece of tape to close an incision as opposed to sutures," he adds. "Gluing things together underwater is not easy. Have you ever tried to put a Band-Aid on in the shower? This insect has been doing this for 150 million to 200 million years."

The new study, funded by the National Science Foundation, is set for publication this week in Biomacromolecules, a journal of the American Chemical Society.

There are thousands of caddisfly species worldwide in an order of insects named Trichoptera that are related to Lepidoptera, the order that includes moths and butterflies that spin dry silk. Because caddisflies are eaten by trout, fly fishermen use caddisfly lures. Some species spend their larval stages developing underwater, and build an inch-long, tube-shaped case or shelter around themselves using sticky silk and grains of rock or sand. Other species use silk, small sticks and pieces of leaves.

Each larva has a head and four legs that stick out from the tube. The larval case often is conical because it gets wider as the larva grows. A caddisfly larva eventually pupates, sealing off the tube as it develops into an adult fly and then hatches.

Aquatic caddisflies and terrestrial butterflies and moths diverged from a common silk-spinning ancestor some 150 million to 200 million years ago. Caddisflies now live around the world in waters ranging from fast streams to quiet marshes.

"The caddisflies' successful penetration into diverse aquatic habitats is largely due to the inventive use by their larva of underwater silk to build elaborate structures for protection and food gathering," the new study says.

Caddisflies fall into subgroups. Brachycentrus echo, the species Stewart studied, is one of the casemakers, which build their case and then drag it along with them underwater as they forage for food. Some caddisfly larva are retreatmakers, which build a stationary dome-shaped shelter glued to a rock, with a silk net to catch passing food.

From Sea Glue to Sticky Fly Silk

Stewart studies natural adhesives, including glue produced in intertidal ocean waters by the sandcastle worm. It has potential as glue for repairing small broken bones.

He got interested in caddisfly larva adhesive silk tape after he was contacted by a Smithsonian Institution scientist who showed him several of the tube-shaped larval cases.

"We looked inside a case through a microscope and saw these silk struts between the rocks and realized this is really interesting," he says. "So I came home and put on my fly fishing boots and started wandering mountain streams looking for caddisfly larvae."

Stewart and study co-author Ching Shuen Wang – who works in Stewart's lab – studied the caddisfly species B. echo from the lower Provo River about an hour south of Salt Lake City. Bioengineering undergraduate student Nick Ashton gathered the fly larvae and figured out how to keep them alive in the lab.

"There's just a fascinating diversity of these insects. Their adhesive is able to bond to a wide range of surfaces underwater: soft and hard, organic and inorganic. If we could copy this adhesive it would be useful on a wide range of tissue types."

Caddisfly larvae extrude adhesive silk ribbon out of an organ known as the spinneret. The products of two silk glands converge there, so the extruded adhesive looks like a double ribbon with a seam the long way. The larvae weave this sticky mesh back and forth around sand grains, sticks or leaf pieces to create the tubes they occupy.

Stewart and colleagues grew caddisfly larvae in aquariums, but with glass beads instead of the sand and rock grains found in streams. The larvae expanded their rock cases using the beads, which were glued together from the inside by wet silk ribbons.

The researchers broke off some beads to obtain clean samples of silk. They analyzed the silk using several methods, including scanning electron microscopy, which showed how silk fibers stitched together the glass beads from inside of the shelter case.

"It's like using Scotch tape on the inside of a box to hold it together," Stewart says. "It's really like a tape more than anything else – a tape that works underwater."

Stewart hasn't studied the strength of the caddisfly silk, but plans to do so.

"Individual threads aren't very strong, but it lays down dozens of them. If we can copy this material and make tape out of it, the bond strength would go up dramatically."

The Chemistry and Structure of Wet Silk from Caddisflies

Stewart's study included detailed analysis of the chemistry and structure of the caddisfly silk, showing how it is similar to what silkworm moths produce for use in textiles and even to spider web silk, but with adaptations that make it work underwater.

Stewart says his goal was to characterize the adhesive silk fiber "for the purpose of trying to copy it" so a synthetic version can be used as a surgical adhesive.

he found the caddisfly silk is a fiber made of large proteins named fibroin (fye-bro-in) with an amino acid named serine making up a fifth of the amino acids in fibroin.

The key difference between dry silks from moths and butterflies and wet silks from caddisflies is that the serines in the silk from caddisflies are "phosphorylated," meaning phosphates are added to the serines as the fibroin silk protein is synthesized.

"Phosphates are well-known adhesion promoters used in dental fixtures such as crowns or fillings," says Stewart. "They are also in latex paints that are water-based, and the phosphates increase the adhesion of those paints. The paint industry discovered this fairly recently. Caddisflies have been doing this for at least 150 million years."

The phosphates attached to the serines are negatively charged. Other amino acids in the protein are positively charged. Stewart found that is a key factor in making silk underwater. Chains of proteins – each with alternating regions of positive and negative charges – line up in parallel with positive and negative charges attracting each other.

"Imagine those chains aligned side-by-side, but staggered so the pluses and minuses are lined up, which then forms silk fibers with lots and lots of these protein chains in one fiber," Stewart says. "You wouldn't be able to make shirts out of it, but you might be able to make wet Band-Aids."

Stewart made a counterintuitive finding about how wet silks are made. "These fibroin proteins that make up the silks are water-soluble because of the electrical charges. Ironically – and this is our hypothesis for now – the association of those plus or minus charges makes them water-insoluble. This is how you make a silk fiber under water."

Comparison with amino acids from three other caddisfly species found great similarities, suggesting other caddisflies also use phosphorylation to spin silk underwater.

Stewart says caddisfly silk and sandcastle worm glue are similar: their proteins are heavily phosphorylated and have a large number of positively charged amino acids.

He says the ability to make adhesives underwater now has been identified in four phyla – major categories of living organisms – that include caddisflies, sandcastle worms, mussels and sea cucumbers.

"They came to this underwater adhesion solution completely independently," showing that it repeatedly evolved because of its value in helping the creatures live and thrive, Stewart says.

For information of the University of Utah College of Engineering, see: http://www.coe.utah.edu

University of Utah Public Relations
201 Presidents Circle, Room 308
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-9017
(801) 581-6773 fax: (801) 585-3350

Lee Siegel | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.utah.edu
http://www.unews.utah.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
19.07.2018 | Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY

nachricht NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
18.07.2018 | New York Stem Cell Foundation

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Global study of world's beaches shows threat to protected areas

19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

New creepy, crawly search and rescue robot developed at Ben-Gurion U

19.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Metal too 'gummy' to cut? Draw on it with a Sharpie or glue stick, science says

19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>