A genetic modification in the mucous membrane of the esophagus, the Barrett esophagus, can lead to esophageal cancer. If certain biomarkers are contained in these tissue alterations, so-called miDNA, these are extremely short DNA strands, it could be an indication that this preliminary stage of esophageal cancer indeed leads to cancer. This was discovered by scientists of the Gastroesophageal Tumor Unit (CCC-GET) of the Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC) Vienna of the MedUni Vienna and the AKH Vienna in a joint study with the National Institutes of Health, USA, and the Johns Hopkins University, USA.
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common tumor disease in the western world. A subtype, the adeno carcinoma, is the kind of cancer with the strongest relative increase during the past 10 years, namely around 600% in men and up to 380% in women.
Gene analysis could allow the risk determination for esophageal cancer
The highest risk factor for esophageal cancer is heartburn, i.e. the reflux of sour and acrid stomach liquid into the esophagus (reflux). If reflux remains untreated, it can lead to genetic changes in the mucous membrane and thus to the outbreak of the disease in the long term.
One preliminary stage of adeno carcinoma is the so-called Barrett esophagus, which also exhibits mutations in the mucous membrane. Barrett esophagus leads to esophageal cancer in 0.5% of the cases. In order to prevent a malignant development, physicians recommend the removal of this mucosal change.
Control modules for the tumor development
As not all cases of Barrett esophagus become malignant, it is important for the treating physician to know whether there are reliable indicators (so-called biomarkers) which allow the estimation of a tumor development in the still benign tissue. Sebastian Schoppmann of the University Clinic for Surgery at the MedUni Vienna and the AKH Vienna, Chief of CCC-GET and one of the managers of the study:
"In this project, we have examined the role of molecular-biological control modules for this tumor occurrence, the so-called miDNA in the affected tissue with the aid of a gene test. Our results show that the miDNA profiles of esophageal cancer are indeed different from Barrett esophagus."
Risk estimation and cost-saving disease control
The results of the study suggest that, based on the existence of specific miDNA, it is possible to estimate whether the existing change in the mucous membrane develops into a malignant disease. It would save patients from enduring the removal of the Barrett esophagus and save costs with respect to the follow-up checks of the disease.
All 300 patients who participated in the study were procured from the CCC-GET unit of MedUni Vienna and AKH Vienna. Schoppmann: "The cooperation with the National Institutes of Health and the Johns Hopkins University, both extremely renowned establishments in the USA, is a great success. The cooperation not only shows the expertise we have developed during the past years, but also that it is recognized in international circles."
Johannes Angerer | AlphaGalileo
During HIV infection, antibody can block B cells from fighting pathogens
14.08.2018 | NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
First study on physical properties of giant cancer cells may inform new treatments
14.08.2018 | Brown University
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur
What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...
The quality of materials often depends on the manufacturing process. In casting and welding, for example, the rate at which melts solidify and the resulting microstructure of the alloy is important. With metallic foams as well, it depends on exactly how the foaming process takes place. To understand these processes fully requires fast sensing capability. The fastest 3D tomographic images to date have now been achieved at the BESSY II X-ray source operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.
Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno and his team have designed a turntable that rotates ultra-stably about its axis at a constant rotational speed. This really depends...
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
25.07.2018 | Event News
14.08.2018 | Information Technology
14.08.2018 | Life Sciences
14.08.2018 | Life Sciences