It can recognize and respond to a component found in the cell wall of bacteria, muramyl dipeptide (MDP), and has been shown to play an important role in the innate immune response of macrophages to bacterial infections. However, the function of NOD2 in the gastrointestinal tract and the colon and its contribution of mutant NOD2 alleles to the pathogenesis of CD is still unclear.
A research article to be published on October 14, 2008 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology addresses this question. The research team led by Professor Simon Carding from the University of Leeds used in vivo and in vitro studies to analyse the specific function of NOD2 in colonic epithelial cells.
They found that NOD2 was predominantly expressed in epithelial cells at the base of colonic crypts, where the majority of cells are undergoing proliferation. In addition, NOD2's ligand, MDP, stimulated the growth of in vitro cultures of colonic epithelial cells. Further evidence for the role of NOD2 in cell growth and survival was obtained using NOD2-deficient mice and RNA interference. In the absence of NOD2 colonic epithelial cells proliferation was reduced and apoptosis increased, which were exacerbated when challenged with the enteric pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium. Surprisingly the ability of NOD2 to promote cell growth and survival was also apparent in the colorectal cancer cells as the introduction of siRNAs specific for NOD2 resulted in an 80% decrease in survival compared to cells treated with control NOD2 siRNA.
These results highlight for the first time the importance of NOD2 in the regulation of epithelial cell growth and survival and consequently the integrity of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier, that is required for protection against pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial infections. further investigation is needed to assess if these receptors work alongside each other in the regulation of epithelial cell homeostasis.
Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View
22.06.2018 | University of Sussex
New cellular pathway helps explain how inflammation leads to artery disease
22.06.2018 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.
Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...
Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
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