Many plants have evolved to endure harsh environmental conditions, yet the detailed mechanisms of plant stress resistance have long remained unclear. A single plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), has been known to play a central regulatory role in such resistance, holding the key to advances in the development of stress-resistant crops.
In results published this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, research teams at RIKEN and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) have for the first time unlocked the secret to ABA-mediated signaling. The teams demonstrated that a protein phosphatase (PP2C) interacts with a protein kinase (SnRK2) to regulate the elusive ABA signal transmission pathway, acting as an ON/OFF switch.
Combining this discovery with the recent finding that PP2C activity is regulated by ABA receptors (RCAR and PYR), the researchers went on to trace the ABA signal pathway itself. In conditions of high environmental stress, they showed that ABA production leads ABA receptors to suppress PP2C, which in turn results in activation of SnRK2, flipping the ABA “switch” and triggering various stress response mechanisms.
Elucidation of the mechanism underlying ABA signaling has wide-ranging implications for plant science. In addition to its role in regulating resistance to drought, salt and cold, ABA contributes to defending against disease and pests, while also functioning at various stages of plant development. Applications are anticipated in the development of stress-resistant crops, in the improvement of seed stability, and in the control of pre-harvest sprouting.
For more information, please contact:Dr. Taishi Umezawa
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The Fraunhofer FEP has been involved in developing processes and equipment for cleaning, sterilization, and surface modification for decades. The CleanHand Network for development of systems and technologies to clean surfaces, materials, and objects was established in May 2018 to bundle the expertise of many partnering organizations. As a partner in the CleanHand Network, Fraunhofer FEP will present the Network and current research topics of the Institute in the field of hygiene and cleaning at the parts2clean trade fair, October 23-25, 2018 in Stuttgart, at the booth of the Fraunhofer Cleaning Technology Alliance (Hall 5, Booth C31).
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The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture. After the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago, matter consisted mainly of quarks and gluons, two types of elementary particles whose interactions are governed by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interaction. In the early universe, these particles moved (nearly) freely in a quark-gluon plasma.
This is a joint press release of University Muenster and Heidelberg as well as the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.
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A study in the journal Bulletin of Marine Science describes a new, blood-red species of octocoral found in Panama. The species in the genus Thesea was discovered in the threatened low-light reef environment on Hannibal Bank, 60 kilometers off mainland Pacific Panama, by researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama (STRI) and the Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (CIMAR) at the University of Costa Rica.
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Scientists have succeeded in observing the first long-distance transfer of information in a magnetic group of materials known as antiferromagnets.
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