Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Fighting parasitic infection inadvertently unleashes dormant virus

27.06.2014

Signals from the immune system that help repel a common parasite inadvertently can cause a dormant viral infection to become active again, a new study shows.

Further research is necessary to understand the clinical significance of the finding, but researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis said the study helps illustrate how complex interactions between infectious agents and the immune system have the potential to affect illness.


D. Davesne/Wikipedia

Pictured is a helminth parasite. When such a parasite infects mice, some of the signals that the animal’s immune system produces to defend against it can activate a latent viral infection.

The results appear online June 26 in Science Express.

The scientists identified specific signals in mice that mobilize the immune system to fight tapeworms, roundworms and other helminths, parasites that infect nearly a quarter of all humans. The same signals cause an inactive herpes virus infection in the mice to begin replicating again.

... more about:
»Express »Immunology »Medicine »Viral »latency »signals

The researchers speculated that the virus might be taking advantage of the host response to the worm infection, multiplying and spreading when the immune system’s attention is fixed on fighting the worms.

“The fact that the virus can ‘sense’ the immune reaction to a worm and respond by reactivating is a remarkable example of co-evolution,” said senior author Herbert W. Virgin IV, MD, PhD. “We think other interactions between multiple infectious agents and the immune system will be discovered over time that we will view as similarly sophisticated or maybe even devious. Understanding these interactions will help us survive in a complex microbial world.”

Viral infections typically begin with a battle with the host’s immune system. That clash may eliminate many copies of the virus, but some can survive and hide in the nucleus of long-lived host cells without replicating, entering a phase known as latency.

Scientists have observed several examples of latent viral infections, such as tuberculosis, becoming active again after parasitic infections, such as malaria. The new study is the first to show that this reactivation can be triggered by immune system signals, and is also the first to identify genetic elements in the virus that direct its reactivation from latency.

The researchers gave mice a virus similar to human Karposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus, a virus that causes cancers common in AIDS patients. After the infection became latent, the researchers infected the mice with parasitic helminth worms. The parasite then caused the mouse immune system to make cytokines, signaling molecules that help summon the immune cells and other factors needed to attack the parasites.

But the same cytokines also caused the herpes virus to start reproducing.

“Viruses become latent because they can detect immune system signals that tell them not to replicate,” said first author Tiffany Reese, PhD, the Damon Runyon Postdoctoral Fellow in Virgin’s lab. “Now, for the first time, we’ve shown a virus can detect immune system signals that tell the virus to start replicating. The signals are a response to the parasite infection, but the virus has developed a way of ‘eavesdropping’ on that response.”

Virgin, the Edward Mallinckrodt Professor and Head of Pathology and Immunology, emphasized that the finding only applies to a particular class of herpes viruses that does not include herpes simplex, a common cause of sexually transmitted disease, or cytomegalovirus, which causes problems in patients with compromised immune systems.

“The human health consequences of reactivating this type of virus are unclear,” he said. “We need to learn much more about how common these types of interactions are between multiple types of pathogens and the immune system before we can consider the implications for clinical treatment. And now we’ve identified an important place to begin asking those kinds of questions.”

Funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (U54 AI057160, RO1 CA96511, and AI032573) supported this research.  

The image in this release is credited to D. Davesne, via Wikipedia.

Reese TA, Wakeman BS, Choi HS, Hufford MM, Huang SC, Zhang X, Buck MD, Jezewski A, Kambal A, Liu CY, Goel G, Murray PJ, Xavier RJ, Kaplan MH, Renne R, Speck SH, Artyomov MN, Pearce EJ, Virgin HW. Helminth infection reactivates latent gamma-herpesvirus via cytokine competition at a viral promoter. Science Express, online June 26, 2014. 

Washington University School of Medicine’s 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient-care institutions in the nation, currently ranked sixth in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

Michael C. Purdy | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
https://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/27074.aspx

Further reports about: Express Immunology Medicine Viral latency signals

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A new molecular player involved in T cell activation
07.12.2018 | Tokyo Institute of Technology

nachricht News About a Plant Hormone
07.12.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Researchers develop method to transfer entire 2D circuits to any smooth surface

What if a sensor sensing a thing could be part of the thing itself? Rice University engineers believe they have a two-dimensional solution to do just that.

Rice engineers led by materials scientists Pulickel Ajayan and Jun Lou have developed a method to make atom-flat sensors that seamlessly integrate with devices...

Im Focus: Three components on one chip

Scientists at the University of Stuttgart and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) succeed in important further development on the way to quantum Computers.

Quantum computers one day should be able to solve certain computing problems much faster than a classical computer. One of the most promising approaches is...

Im Focus: Substitute for rare earth metal oxides

New Project SNAPSTER: Novel luminescent materials by encapsulating phosphorescent metal clusters with organic liquid crystals

Nowadays energy conversion in lighting and optoelectronic devices requires the use of rare earth oxides.

Im Focus: A bit of a stretch... material that thickens as it's pulled

Scientists have discovered the first synthetic material that becomes thicker - at the molecular level - as it is stretched.

Researchers led by Dr Devesh Mistry from the University of Leeds discovered a new non-porous material that has unique and inherent "auxetic" stretching...

Im Focus: The force of the vacuum

Scientists from the Theory Department of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) in Hamburg have shown through theoretical calculations and computer simulations that the force between electrons and lattice distortions in an atomically thin two-dimensional superconductor can be controlled with virtual photons. This could aid the development of new superconductors for energy-saving devices and many other technical applications.

The vacuum is not empty. It may sound like magic to laypeople but it has occupied physicists since the birth of quantum mechanics.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

EGU 2019 meeting: Media registration now open

06.12.2018 | Event News

Expert Panel on the Future of HPC in Engineering

03.12.2018 | Event News

Inaugural "Virtual World Tour" scheduled for december

28.11.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new molecular player involved in T cell activation

07.12.2018 | Life Sciences

High-temperature electronics? That's hot

07.12.2018 | Materials Sciences

Supercomputers without waste heat

07.12.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>