Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Re-Using Enzymes Key to South Dakota State University Research

05.05.2010
A South Dakota State University scientist is exploring ways to re-use enzymes in processes such as making cellulosic ethanol.

The research could lead to big financial savings for industry.

“Enzymes are usually very expensive items in chemistry or biochemistry,” said professor Basil Dalaly in South Dakota State University’s Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Hospitality. “One of the big obstacles in using enzymes in converting cellulose, or biomass, to ethanol is the high cost of enzymes. We are trying immobilize the enzyme by attaching it to beads.

“Afterwards, the enzyme could be used for more than one time — two, three, four, five times because the beads will keep the attached enzyme rather than allowing it to float away along with the processed products.”

Working with enzyme company Novozymes, Dalaly and his graduate student, Pavani Mandali, have evaluated several chemical methods to attach enzymes to beads. They then evaluated the enzyme activity, how well the enzymes attached to the beads and other technical variables.

“From our results so far, I can say we are successful in using the enzymes for five cycles, but with decreasing activity from 100 percent to 40 percent. We still retain 40 percent of the original activity of the enzyme,” Dalaly said.

He added that would be a huge financial advantage in industrial processes that rely on enzymes.

“Using the same enzyme for five times means you need not use a fresh batch of enzymes every time — you can use them over and over,” Dalaly said.

Mandali, who is working toward her Ph.D. in biological sciences, said the SDSU research shows enzymes attached to the beads have 95 percent of their original activity when used a second time; 75 percent of their original activity when used for a third cycle; 50 percent of their activity when used a fourth time; and about 35 to 40 percent of their original activity when used for a fifth processing cycle.

The SDSU study is part of a many-pronged project to develop more efficient methods to produce ethanol from cellulosic biomass, thought to be the source of the next generation of ethanol. Dalaly’s work uses biomass pretreated by engineers in SDSU’s Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering.

“We are trying now to use biomass, corn stover and DDGS to convert to ethanol,” Dalaly said.

His work so far shows the re-used enzymes work better on some biomass materials than others.

“In the near future we will use these immobilized enzymes in a small bioreactor on different kinds of biomass, not only corn stover and DDGS, but also big bluestem, switchgrass and prairie cordgrass,” Dalaly said.

Dalaly’s work also looks at questions such as the time for all of the biomass to be hydrolyzed, or broken down. The project also involves analyzing the hydrolyzed biomass to determine what monosaccharides, or simple sugars, are in the hydrolysate.

Dalaly said as the SDSU work continues, he and his student will address the problem of how to gather or recover the beads once a processing cycle is over.

In addition to the enzymes provided by Novozymes, the federal Department of Energy and the South Dakota Corn Utilization Council help support Dalaly’s research though grants. The North Central Sun Grant Center at SDSU also funded some of Dalaly’s early work looking at enzymes in pretreatment of biomass feedstocks.

About South Dakota State University
Founded in 1881, South Dakota State University is the state’s Morrill Act land-grant institution as well as its largest, most comprehensive school of higher education. SDSU confers degrees from seven different colleges representing more than 200 majors, minors and options. The institution also offers 23 master’s degree programs and 12 Ph.D. programs.

The work of the university is carried out on a residential campus in Brookings, at sites in Sioux Falls, Pierre and Rapid City, and through Cooperative Extension offices and Agricultural Experiment Station research sites across the state.

Basil Dalaly | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.sdstate.edu

Further reports about: Agricultural Research DDGS Dakota Novozymes SDSU enzymes

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Brought to light – chromobodies reveal changes in endogenous protein concentration in living cells
21.09.2018 | NMI Naturwissenschaftliches und Medizinisches Institut an der Universität Tübingen

nachricht A one-way street for salt
21.09.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Scientists present new observations to understand the phase transition in quantum chromodynamics

The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture. After the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago, matter consisted mainly of quarks and gluons, two types of elementary particles whose interactions are governed by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interaction. In the early universe, these particles moved (nearly) freely in a quark-gluon plasma.

This is a joint press release of University Muenster and Heidelberg as well as the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.

Then, in a phase transition, they combined and formed hadrons, among them the building blocks of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons. In the current issue of...

Im Focus: Patented nanostructure for solar cells: Rough optics, smooth surface

Thin-film solar cells made of crystalline silicon are inexpensive and achieve efficiencies of a good 14 percent. However, they could do even better if their shiny surfaces reflected less light. A team led by Prof. Christiane Becker from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) has now patented a sophisticated new solution to this problem.

"It is not enough simply to bring more light into the cell," says Christiane Becker. Such surface structures can even ultimately reduce the efficiency by...

Im Focus: New soft coral species discovered in Panama

A study in the journal Bulletin of Marine Science describes a new, blood-red species of octocoral found in Panama. The species in the genus Thesea was discovered in the threatened low-light reef environment on Hannibal Bank, 60 kilometers off mainland Pacific Panama, by researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama (STRI) and the Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (CIMAR) at the University of Costa Rica.

Scientists established the new species, Thesea dalioi, by comparing its physical traits, such as branch thickness and the bright red colony color, with the...

Im Focus: New devices based on rust could reduce excess heat in computers

Physicists explore long-distance information transmission in antiferromagnetic iron oxide

Scientists have succeeded in observing the first long-distance transfer of information in a magnetic group of materials known as antiferromagnets.

Im Focus: Finding Nemo's genes

An international team of researchers has mapped Nemo's genome

An international team of researchers has mapped Nemo's genome, providing the research community with an invaluable resource to decode the response of fish to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

"Boston calling": TU Berlin and the Weizenbaum Institute organize a conference in USA

21.09.2018 | Event News

One of the world’s most prominent strategic forums for global health held in Berlin in October 2018

03.09.2018 | Event News

4th Intelligent Materials - European Symposium on Intelligent Materials

27.08.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Astrophysicists measure precise rotation pattern of sun-like stars for the first time

21.09.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Brought to light – chromobodies reveal changes in endogenous protein concentration in living cells

21.09.2018 | Life Sciences

"Boston calling": TU Berlin and the Weizenbaum Institute organize a conference in USA

21.09.2018 | Event News

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>