Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Down but not out – Inhibited Tyk2 retains anti-cancer activity

11.09.2015

Tyk2 is a key component of the immune system and has an important role in the defence against infections and cancer. Recent studies, however, have established that Tyk2 is strongly activated in certain types of cancer and that inhibition of its enzymatic activity stops cancer cell growth. A team from the Vetmeduni Vienna has now presented the first evidence that enzymatically inactive Tyk2 retains anti-cancer activity of immune cells in mice. Thus, Tyk2-inhibiting drugs do not impair the immune system’s fight against cancer. The results were published in the journal Oncoimmunology.

Tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) is an enzyme involved in intracellular signalling and has an important role in activating the immune system. But enzymatically active Tyk2 can also promote excessive immune reactions and growth of certain cancer types.

Since several years, scientists are developing substances to specifically inhibit the kinase activity of Tyk2 for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and for potential use in cancer therapy. However, complications may occur: Tyk2 crucially contributes to the maturation and activation of natural killer (NK) cells.

NK cells form part of the innate immune system and are the first defence against virus infections and cancer. They recognise cancer cells and produce a series of proteins capable of destroying them. Inhibition of Tyk2 could therefore also weaken NK cells and block an important front of the body’s own defence against cancer.

First evidence of kinase-independent functions of Tyk2 in a living organism

A team of researchers led by Birgit Strobl, Mathias Müller and Veronika Sexl from the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics and the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the Vetmeduni Vienna investigated cancer growth in Tyk2 gene-targeted mice.

Tyk2-deficient mice were not able to control cancer growth. NK cells of these animals exhibited incomplete maturation and were unable to destroy cancer cells. Surprisingly, in mice whose Tyk2 was present but enzymatically inactivated, cancer growth was strongly suppressed and NK cells retained their ability to kill the cancer cells.

Project leader Birgit Strobl explains: “Until now, it was unknown that Tyk2 has effects within the whole organism that do not depend on its enzymatic activities. Without its kinase activity, it still drives NK cell maturation and boosts their activity. Here lies the key for cancer medicine. Drugs that inhibit the kinase activity of Tyk2 – and there are currently several of them in the testing phase – do not hamper the immune system in its work. These drugs are therefore even more promising for cancer therapy than previously thought.”

Research into proteins involved in the JAK/STAT signal pathway

The research forms part of a Special Research Programme (SFB) funded by FWF, the Austrian Science Fund. SFB F28 “Jak-Stat Signalling: From Basics to Disease” (http://www.jak-stat.at) involves a consortium of Viennese researchers with the participation of an international scientific network and aims to understand the function of JAKs (Janus kinases) and STATs (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) in the context of inflammation, infection and cancer.

Service:
The article “In vivo tumor surveillance by NK cells requires TYK2 but not TYK2 kinase activity”, by
Michaela Prchal-Murphy, Agnieszka Witalisz-Siepracka, Karoline T. Bednarik, Eva Maria Putz, Dagmar Gotthardt, Katrin Meissl, Veronika Sexl, Mathias Müller and Birgit Strobl was published in the journal OncoImmunology. DOI:10.1080/2162402X.2015.1047579
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/2162402X.2015.1047579

About the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna
The University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria is one of the leading academic and research institutions in the field of Veterinary Sciences in Europe. About 1,300 employees and 2,300 students work on the campus in the north of Vienna which also houses five university clinics and various research sites. Outside of Vienna the university operates Teaching and Research Farms. http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at

Scientific Contact:
Prof. Mathias Müller
Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-5620
mathias.mueller@vetmeduni.ac.at

Released by:
Heike Hochhauser
Corporate Communications
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-1151
heike.hochhauser@vetmeduni.ac.at

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at/en/infoservice/presseinformation/press-releases-2015/...

Heike Hochhauser | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional “protein knockdown” in vertebrates
20.08.2018 | Technische Universität Dresden

nachricht Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves
17.08.2018 | Leibniz Universität Hannover

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: It’s All in the Mix: Jülich Researchers are Developing Fast-Charging Solid-State Batteries

There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.

The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum bugs, meet your new swatter

20.08.2018 | Information Technology

A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional “protein knockdown” in vertebrates

20.08.2018 | Life Sciences

Metamolds: Molding a mold

20.08.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>