Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Down but not out – Inhibited Tyk2 retains anti-cancer activity

11.09.2015

Tyk2 is a key component of the immune system and has an important role in the defence against infections and cancer. Recent studies, however, have established that Tyk2 is strongly activated in certain types of cancer and that inhibition of its enzymatic activity stops cancer cell growth. A team from the Vetmeduni Vienna has now presented the first evidence that enzymatically inactive Tyk2 retains anti-cancer activity of immune cells in mice. Thus, Tyk2-inhibiting drugs do not impair the immune system’s fight against cancer. The results were published in the journal Oncoimmunology.

Tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) is an enzyme involved in intracellular signalling and has an important role in activating the immune system. But enzymatically active Tyk2 can also promote excessive immune reactions and growth of certain cancer types.

Since several years, scientists are developing substances to specifically inhibit the kinase activity of Tyk2 for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and for potential use in cancer therapy. However, complications may occur: Tyk2 crucially contributes to the maturation and activation of natural killer (NK) cells.

NK cells form part of the innate immune system and are the first defence against virus infections and cancer. They recognise cancer cells and produce a series of proteins capable of destroying them. Inhibition of Tyk2 could therefore also weaken NK cells and block an important front of the body’s own defence against cancer.

First evidence of kinase-independent functions of Tyk2 in a living organism

A team of researchers led by Birgit Strobl, Mathias Müller and Veronika Sexl from the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics and the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the Vetmeduni Vienna investigated cancer growth in Tyk2 gene-targeted mice.

Tyk2-deficient mice were not able to control cancer growth. NK cells of these animals exhibited incomplete maturation and were unable to destroy cancer cells. Surprisingly, in mice whose Tyk2 was present but enzymatically inactivated, cancer growth was strongly suppressed and NK cells retained their ability to kill the cancer cells.

Project leader Birgit Strobl explains: “Until now, it was unknown that Tyk2 has effects within the whole organism that do not depend on its enzymatic activities. Without its kinase activity, it still drives NK cell maturation and boosts their activity. Here lies the key for cancer medicine. Drugs that inhibit the kinase activity of Tyk2 – and there are currently several of them in the testing phase – do not hamper the immune system in its work. These drugs are therefore even more promising for cancer therapy than previously thought.”

Research into proteins involved in the JAK/STAT signal pathway

The research forms part of a Special Research Programme (SFB) funded by FWF, the Austrian Science Fund. SFB F28 “Jak-Stat Signalling: From Basics to Disease” (http://www.jak-stat.at) involves a consortium of Viennese researchers with the participation of an international scientific network and aims to understand the function of JAKs (Janus kinases) and STATs (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) in the context of inflammation, infection and cancer.

Service:
The article “In vivo tumor surveillance by NK cells requires TYK2 but not TYK2 kinase activity”, by
Michaela Prchal-Murphy, Agnieszka Witalisz-Siepracka, Karoline T. Bednarik, Eva Maria Putz, Dagmar Gotthardt, Katrin Meissl, Veronika Sexl, Mathias Müller and Birgit Strobl was published in the journal OncoImmunology. DOI:10.1080/2162402X.2015.1047579
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/2162402X.2015.1047579

About the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna
The University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria is one of the leading academic and research institutions in the field of Veterinary Sciences in Europe. About 1,300 employees and 2,300 students work on the campus in the north of Vienna which also houses five university clinics and various research sites. Outside of Vienna the university operates Teaching and Research Farms. http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at

Scientific Contact:
Prof. Mathias Müller
Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-5620
mathias.mueller@vetmeduni.ac.at

Released by:
Heike Hochhauser
Corporate Communications
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-1151
heike.hochhauser@vetmeduni.ac.at

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at/en/infoservice/presseinformation/press-releases-2015/...

Heike Hochhauser | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Turning carbon dioxide into liquid fuel
06.08.2020 | DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

nachricht Tellurium makes the difference
06.08.2020 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: ScanCut project completed: laser cutting enables more intricate plug connector designs

Scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT have come up with a striking new addition to contact stamping technologies in the ERDF research project ScanCut. In collaboration with industry partners from North Rhine-Westphalia, the Aachen-based team of researchers developed a hybrid manufacturing process for the laser cutting of thin-walled metal strips. This new process makes it possible to fabricate even the tiniest details of contact parts in an eco-friendly, high-precision and efficient manner.

Plug connectors are tiny and, at first glance, unremarkable – yet modern vehicles would be unable to function without them. Several thousand plug connectors...

Im Focus: New Strategy Against Osteoporosis

An international research team has found a new approach that may be able to reduce bone loss in osteoporosis and maintain bone health.

Osteoporosis is the most common age-related bone disease which affects hundreds of millions of individuals worldwide. It is estimated that one in three women...

Im Focus: AI & single-cell genomics

New software predicts cell fate

Traditional single-cell sequencing methods help to reveal insights about cellular differences and functions - but they do this with static snapshots only...

Im Focus: TU Graz Researchers synthesize nanoparticles tailored for special applications

“Core-shell” clusters pave the way for new efficient nanomaterials that make catalysts, magnetic and laser sensors or measuring devices for detecting electromagnetic radiation more efficient.

Whether in innovative high-tech materials, more powerful computer chips, pharmaceuticals or in the field of renewable energies, nanoparticles – smallest...

Im Focus: Tailored light inspired by nature

An international research team with Prof. Cornelia Denz from the Institute of Applied Physics at the University of Münster develop for the first time light fields using caustics that do not change during propagation. With the new method, the physicists cleverly exploit light structures that can be seen in rainbows or when light is transmitted through drinking glasses.

Modern applications as high resolution microsopy or micro- or nanoscale material processing require customized laser beams that do not change during...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2020”: The final touches for surfaces

23.07.2020 | Event News

Conference radar for cybersecurity

21.07.2020 | Event News

Contact Tracing Apps against COVID-19: German National Academy Leopoldina hosts international virtual panel discussion

07.07.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rare Earth Elements in Norwegian Fjords?

06.08.2020 | Earth Sciences

Anode material for safe batteries with a long cycle life

06.08.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Turning carbon dioxide into liquid fuel

06.08.2020 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>