Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Disorder of Neuronal Circuits in Autism is Reversible

14.09.2012
People with autism suffer from a pervasive developmental disorder of the brain that becomes evident in early childhood.
Peter Scheiffele and Kaspar Vogt, Professors at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel, have identified a specific dysfunction in neuronal circuits that is caused by autism. In the respected journal „Science“, the scientists also report about their success in reversing these neuronal changes. These findings are an important step in drug development for the treatment for autism.

According to current estimates, about one percent of all children develop an autistic spectrum disorder. Individuals with autism may exhibit impaired social behavior, rigid patterns of behavior and limited speech development. Autism is a hereditary developmental disorder of the brain. A central risk factor for the development of autism are numerous mutations in over 300 genes that have been identified, including the gene neuroligin-3, which is involved in the formation of synapses, the contact junction between nerve cells.

Loss of neuroligin-3 interferes with neuronal signal transmission

The consequences of neuroligin-3 loss can be studied in animal models. Mice lacking the gene for neuroligin-3 develop behavioral patterns reflecting important aspects observed in autism. In collaboration with Roche the research groups from the Biozentrum at the University of Basel have now identified a defect in synaptic signal transmission that interferes with the function and plasticity of the neuronal circuits.

Synaptic networks in brains of rodent models of autism

Photo: Stephane Baudouin

These negative effects are associated with increased production of a specific neuronal glutamate receptor, which modulates the signal transmission between neurons. An excess of these receptors inhibits the adaptation of the synaptic signal transmission during the learning process, thus disrupting the development and function of the brain in the long term.

Of major importance is the finding that the impaired development of the neuronal circuit in the brain is reversible. When the scientists reactivated the production of neuroligin-3 in the mice, the nerve cells scaled down the production of the glutamate receptors to a normal level and the structural defects in the brain typical for autism disappeared. Hence, these glutamate receptors could be a suitable pharmacological target in order to stop the developmental disorder autism or even reverse it.

Vision for the future: Medication for autism

Autism currently cannot be cured. At present, only the symptoms of the disorder can be alleviated through behavioral therapy and other treatment. A new approach to its treatment, however, has been uncovered through the results of this study. In one of the European Union supported projects, EU-AIMS, the research groups from the Biozentrum are working in collaboration with Roche and other partners in industry on applying glutamate receptor antagonists for the treatment of autism and hope, that in the future, this disorder can be treated successfully in both children and adults.

Original article:

Baudouin S. J., Gaudias J., Gerharz S., Hatstatt L., Zhou K., Punnakkal P., Tanaka K. F., Spooren W., Hen R., De Zeeuw C.I., Vogt K., Scheiffele K. (2012) Shared Synaptic Pathophysiology in Syndromic and Non-syndromic Rodent Models of Autism. Science; Published online September 13, 2012 | DOI: 10.1126/science.1224159

Further information:

Prof. Peter Scheiffele, Biozentrum, Universität Basel, Neurobiology, Klingelbergstrasse 50/70, 4056 Basel, Email: peter.scheiffele@unibas.ch

Andrea Schürpf | Universität Basel
Further information:
http://www.unibas.ch
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2012/09/12/science.1224159

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How molecules teeter in a laser field
18.01.2019 | Forschungsverbund Berlin

nachricht Discovery of enhanced bone growth could lead to new treatments for osteoporosis
18.01.2019 | University of California - Los Angeles

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Ten-year anniversary of the Neumayer Station III

The scientific and political community alike stress the importance of German Antarctic research

Joint Press Release from the BMBF and AWI

The Antarctic is a frigid continent south of the Antarctic Circle, where researchers are the only inhabitants. Despite the hostile conditions, here the Alfred...

Im Focus: Ultra ultrasound to transform new tech

World first experiments on sensor that may revolutionise everything from medical devices to unmanned vehicles

The new sensor - capable of detecting vibrations of living cells - may revolutionise everything from medical devices to unmanned vehicles.

Im Focus: Flying Optical Cats for Quantum Communication

Dead and alive at the same time? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have implemented Erwin Schrödinger’s paradoxical gedanken experiment employing an entangled atom-light state.

In 1935 Erwin Schrödinger formulated a thought experiment designed to capture the paradoxical nature of quantum physics. The crucial element of this gedanken...

Im Focus: Nanocellulose for novel implants: Ears from the 3D-printer

Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing.

It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains:

Im Focus: Elucidating the Atomic Mechanism of Superlubricity

The phenomenon of so-called superlubricity is known, but so far the explanation at the atomic level has been missing: for example, how does extremely low friction occur in bearings? Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institutes IWM and IWS jointly deciphered a universal mechanism of superlubricity for certain diamond-like carbon layers in combination with organic lubricants. Based on this knowledge, it is now possible to formulate design rules for supra lubricating layer-lubricant combinations. The results are presented in an article in Nature Communications, volume 10.

One of the most important prerequisites for sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility is minimizing friction. Research and industry have been dedicated...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Our digital society in 2040

16.01.2019 | Event News

11th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Aachen, 3-4 April 2019

14.01.2019 | Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Additive manufacturing reflects fundamental metallurgical principles to create materials

18.01.2019 | Materials Sciences

How molecules teeter in a laser field

18.01.2019 | Life Sciences

The cytoskeleton of neurons has been found to be involved in Alzheimer's disease

18.01.2019 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>