Phar Lap was a legendary racehorse that won many notable races. After its triumph in the famous Agua Caliente Handicap in 1932 in Mexico, the animal died in agony under mysterious circumstances while on tour in the USA. One of the suggestions at the time was that Phar Lap had been poisoned.
Ivan M. Kempson (Academia Sinica, Taiwan) and Dermot A. Henry (Museum Victoria, Australia) have now subjected the horse’s hairs to a very thorough examination. As the researchers report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, the animal does indeed seem to have died of arsenic poisoning.
Traces of many substances that enter the body eventually also wind up in the hair, where they accumulate. Hair analysis has often been used to detect drug use or to posthumously uncover poisoning as the cause of death. After his death, Phar Lap was prepared and stuffed and displayed in Museum Victoria in Melbourne. “We were able to obtain small pieces of the hide and mane with the roots intact,” reports Kempson.
They only examined hairs that were unquestionably still growing at the time of death. These were individually analyzed along their entire length with synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source in Chicago. This method detects even trace amounts of chemical elements because each element emits very characteristic radiation.
The scientists looked at the arsenic content of the hairs. “They found a small amount of arsenic that was relatively evenly distributed over all of the hairs. This is in agreement with the arsenic content of the chemicals used to preserve the hide,” says Kempson. “In addition, we found a considerably elevated arsenic content at the same distance from the root in each of the hairs we examined.”At the time of the horse’s death, this part of the hair was under the surface of the skin.
“If you take into account the rate of growth for horse hair and the metabolic rate, the location at which the elevated arsenic concentration was found indicates that the horse must have eaten and metabolized the arsenic,” explains Kempson. In addition, the scientists used an X-ray technique that can distinguish the chemical environment of the arsenic. Says Kempson: “ The arsenic species identified also suggest that Phar Lap died of arsenic poisoning.”
However, it is impossible to know how the horse ingested the arsenic. Was it deliberate poisoning by competitors or enviers? Was it an accident—perhaps an overdose of the arsenic-containing tonics popular at the time? Was the feed contaminated? “That will always remain a mystery,” says Kempson.
Author: Ivan M. Kempson, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan), mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org
Title: Synchrotron Radiation Reveals Arsenic Poisoning and Metabolism in Hair: The Case of Phar Lap
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Permalink to the article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.200906594
Ivan M. Kempson | Angewandte Chemie
Brought to light – chromobodies reveal changes in endogenous protein concentration in living cells
21.09.2018 | NMI Naturwissenschaftliches und Medizinisches Institut an der Universität Tübingen
A one-way street for salt
21.09.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture. After the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago, matter consisted mainly of quarks and gluons, two types of elementary particles whose interactions are governed by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interaction. In the early universe, these particles moved (nearly) freely in a quark-gluon plasma.
This is a joint press release of University Muenster and Heidelberg as well as the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.
Then, in a phase transition, they combined and formed hadrons, among them the building blocks of atomic nuclei, protons and neutrons. In the current issue of...
Thin-film solar cells made of crystalline silicon are inexpensive and achieve efficiencies of a good 14 percent. However, they could do even better if their shiny surfaces reflected less light. A team led by Prof. Christiane Becker from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) has now patented a sophisticated new solution to this problem.
"It is not enough simply to bring more light into the cell," says Christiane Becker. Such surface structures can even ultimately reduce the efficiency by...
A study in the journal Bulletin of Marine Science describes a new, blood-red species of octocoral found in Panama. The species in the genus Thesea was discovered in the threatened low-light reef environment on Hannibal Bank, 60 kilometers off mainland Pacific Panama, by researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama (STRI) and the Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (CIMAR) at the University of Costa Rica.
Scientists established the new species, Thesea dalioi, by comparing its physical traits, such as branch thickness and the bright red colony color, with the...
Scientists have succeeded in observing the first long-distance transfer of information in a magnetic group of materials known as antiferromagnets.
An international team of researchers has mapped Nemo's genome, providing the research community with an invaluable resource to decode the response of fish to...
21.09.2018 | Event News
03.09.2018 | Event News
27.08.2018 | Event News
21.09.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
21.09.2018 | Life Sciences
21.09.2018 | Event News