But, according to Alan Wilson from the Royal Veterinary College, UK, there is no clear reason for the cheetah's exceptional performance. 'Cheetahs and greyhounds are known to use a rotary gallop and physically they are remarkably similar, yet there is this bewitching difference in maximum speed of almost a factor of two', he says.
Teaming up with Penny Hudson and Sandra Corr, Wilson decided to compare how cheetahs and greyhounds sprint to see if there were any mechanical differences between the two animals' movements and they publish their findings in The Journal of Experimental Biology at http://jeb.biologists.org.
Knowing that captive big cats are happy to chase a lure, the trio were confident that they could get the cheetahs at ZSL Whipsnade Zoo, UK, and the Ann van Dyk Cheetah Centre, South Africa, to sprint across force plates buried in a track in the animals' enclosure. The problem would be getting the valuable equipment to work in the open. 'Force plates are cosseted, loved pieces of equipment that people don't generally take outside of the lab and bury in the ground in the English summer', Wilson chuckles. However, after successfully installing eight force plates in the cheetahs' enclosure, along with four high speed cameras filming at 1000frames/s, Hudson tempted the cheetahs to gallop along the track with a piece of chicken attached to a truck starter motor while she measured the forces exerted on the animals' limbs, their body motion and footfall patterns. She also repeated the measurements on galloping greyhounds back in the lab, filming the animals at a slower 350frames/s.
But, when Hudson compared the animals' top speeds, she was surprised to see that the trained greyhounds galloped faster than captive cheetahs, clocking up a top speed of 19m/s compared with the cheetahs' 17.8m/s. Nevertheless, Hudson was able to identify clear differences in the animals' stride patterns that could explain how wild cheetahs would outpace the dogs.
When running at the same speed, the big cats' stride was slightly longer than the greyhounds', although the cheetahs compensated for this with a slightly lower stride frequency. Also, the cheetahs increased their stride frequency as they shifted up through the gears – running at 2.4strides/s at a leisurely 9m/s, rising to 3.2strides/s at their top speed of 17m/s – whereas the greyhounds maintained a constant stride rate around 3.5strides/s across their entire speed range. Wilson suspects that wild cats may be able to reach stride frequencies of 4strides/s, which, in combination with longer stride lengths, may allow them to outstrip their captive cousins and hit top speeds of 29m/s.
Also, when Hudson analysed the length of time that each animal's foot remained in contact with the ground – the stance time – she noticed that for some of the cheetah's limbs it was longer, and the team suspects that this may be another factor that contributes to the wild cheetah's record performance. Explaining that increasing the stance time reduces the peak loads on the animal's legs, Wilson says, '[with] a longer stance time the cheetah will get to the limiting load at higher speed than the greyhound'.
Speculating about the relatively poor performance of the captive cheetahs, Wilson suggests that they may lack motivation. 'They have lived in a zoo for several generations and have never had to run to catch food. They have probably never learned to run particularly', he says, adding, 'The next stage is to try to make measurements in wild cheetahs in the hope of seeing higher speeds.'
IF REPORTING ON THIS STORY, PLEASE MENTION THE JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AS THE SOURCE AND, IF REPORTING ONLINE, PLEASE CARRY A LINK TO: http://jeb.biologists.org/content/215/14/2425.abstract
REFERENCE: Hudson, P. E., Corr, S. A. and Wilson, A. M. (2012). High speed galloping in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris): spatio-temporal and kinetic characteristics. J. Exp. Biol. 215, 2425-2434.
This article is posted on this site to give advance access to other authorised media who may wish to report on this story. Full attribution is required, and if reporting online a link to jeb.biologists.com is also required. The story posted here is COPYRIGHTED. Therefore advance permission is required before any and every reproduction of each article in full. PLEASE CONTACT firstname.lastname@example.org
Kathryn Knight | EurekAlert!
Enzymes as double agents: new mechanism discovered in protein modification
07.07.2020 | Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster
Protein linked to cancer acts as a viscous glue in cell division
07.07.2020 | Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Kiel physics team observed extremely fast electronic changes in real time in a special material class
In physics, they are currently the subject of intensive research; in electronics, they could enable completely new functions. So-called topological materials...
Solar cells based on perovskite compounds could soon make electricity generation from sunlight even more efficient and cheaper. The laboratory efficiency of these perovskite solar cells already exceeds that of the well-known silicon solar cells. An international team led by Stefan Weber from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz has found microscopic structures in perovskite crystals that can guide the charge transport in the solar cell. Clever alignment of these "electron highways" could make perovskite solar cells even more powerful.
Solar cells convert sunlight into electricity. During this process, the electrons of the material inside the cell absorb the energy of the light....
Empa researchers have succeeded in applying aerogels to microelectronics: Aerogels based on cellulose nanofibers can effectively shield electromagnetic radiation over a wide frequency range – and they are unrivalled in terms of weight.
Electric motors and electronic devices generate electromagnetic fields that sometimes have to be shielded in order not to affect neighboring electronic...
A promising operating mode for the plasma of a future power plant has been developed at the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device at Max Planck Institute for Plasma...
Live event – July 1, 2020 - 11:00 to 11:45 (CET)
"Automation in Aerospace Industry @ Fraunhofer IFAM"
The Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM l Stade is presenting its forward-looking R&D portfolio for the first time at...
07.07.2020 | Event News
02.07.2020 | Event News
19.05.2020 | Event News
07.07.2020 | Life Sciences
07.07.2020 | Life Sciences
07.07.2020 | Life Sciences