Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Breaching the brain’s defense causes epilepsy

27.08.2019

Scientific study proves the relevance of glial cells for epileptic seizures and shows potential for new therapies

Epileptic seizures can happen to anyone. But how do they occur and what initiates such a rapid response? An international team of scientists led by Prof. Dr. Emre Yaksi at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway and includes researchers from Dr. Caghan Kizil’s group at the Center for Regenerative Therapies at TU Dresden (CRTD), has discovered that failure of the so-called glial cells in the brain triggers the epileptic seizures.


Zebrafish is a widely studies model organism in many laboratories.

© Kizil Lab, CRTD


A microscopic view of a young zebrafish brain. Red indicates the glia cells and greens are neurons.

© Emre Yaksi Lab, NTNU

The study investigated epileptic seizures in zebrafish - a widely used model organism for modelling human brain physiology. Zebrafish contains the same cell types that are present also in human brains.

Two of these cell types are glia and neurons. Neurons are primarily involved in transmitting signals. The main functions of Glial cells include maintaining a balanced environment and providing support for the neurons, assisting the immune system and increasing the speed of neural signalling.

The study found that just before an epileptic seizure, nerve cells were abnormally active but only in a localized area of the brain. Instead, glial cells showed large burst of synchronous activity that are widely dispersed across the brain.

During the actual seizure, the neuronal activity increased abruptly. The functional connections between the nerve cells and glial cells became vigorous. When this happened, generalized seizure spread like a storm of electrical activity across the entire brain due to a strong increase in the level of glutamate, a chemical compound that transmits signals between neuronal cells. Glutamate was secreted by glial cells, which convert themselves from a friend to a foe.

The findings indicate that epilepsy may occur not only due to anomalies in neurons, but also in glial cells. "Our results provide a direct evidence that the interactions between glial cells and neurons change during the transition from a pre-seizure state to a generalized seizure. It will be interesting to see if this phenomenon is generalizable across different types of epilepsies," says Prof. Emre Yaksi.

Normally, the glial cells absorb the excess glutamate that is excreted during the increased activity of the nerve cells. This study assumes that the secretion process of the glial cells that we observed in combination with their hyperactivity just before a seizure is a defence mechanism of the brain.

“There are more glial cells than neurons in our brains. Yet, these cells were rather understudied. Our work uncovers an interesting function of the glia and will undoubtedly attract more interest into this cell type”, says CRTD research group leader Dr. Caghan Kizil who together with his colleague Mehmet Ilyas Cosacak is one of the co-authors of the study. Their group conducts its research at the CRTD of the TU Dresden as well as at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE).

In recent decades, a number of new epilepsy drugs have been developed, but a third of patients still do not have good control over their seizures. One reason may be that the current anti-epileptic drugs mostly target the neurons, while the glial cells, which constitute about 80% of the cells in the brain, have been overlooked. "Now we’re working further to investigate whether we can recognize any of the mechanisms that we identified in our current study, in our ongoing collaboration with clinicians" says Yaksi.

The Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD) of TU Dresden is academic home for scientists from more than 30 nations. Their mission is to discover the principles of cell and tissue regeneration and leveraging this for recognition, treatment and reversal of diseases. The CRTD links the bench to the clinic, scientists to clinicians to bring expertise in stem cells, gene-editing and regeneration towards innovative therapies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, haematological diseases such as leukaemia, metabolic diseases such as diabetes, retina and bone diseases. Since 2016, the CRTD is part of the central scientific unit “Center for Molecular and Cellular Bioengineering” (CMCB) of the TU Dresden and plays a central role within the research priority area Health Sciences, Biomedicine and Bioengineering of the TU Dresden.

www.tu-dresden.de/crtd

www.tu-dresden.de/cmcb

Wissenschaftliche Ansprechpartner:

Dr. Caghan Kizil
Tel.: +49 351 210 463-610
Email: caghan.kizil@tu-dresden.de

Originalpublikation:

Nature Communications: “Glia-neuron interactions underlie state transitions to generalized seizures” by Carmen Diaz Verdugo, Sverre Myren-Svelstad, Ecem Aydin, Evelien van Hoeymissen, Celine Deneubourg, Silke Vanderhaeghe, Julie Vancraeynest, Robbrecht Pilgrims, Mehmet Ilyas Cosacak, Akira Muto, Caghan Kizil, Koichi Kawakami, Nathalie Jurisch-Yaksi and Emre Yaksi.

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.crt-dresden.de/research/research-groups/core-groups/crtd-core-groups/...

Kim-Astrid Magister | Technische Universität Dresden

Further reports about: Bioengineering CRTD cell types epileptic epileptic seizures glial cells nerve cells neurons

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Programmable nests for cells
20.01.2020 | Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

nachricht Obesity, heart disease or diabetes could be transmissible
20.01.2020 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Programmable nests for cells

KIT researchers develop novel composites of DNA, silica particles, and carbon nanotubes -- Properties can be tailored to various applications

Using DNA, smallest silica particles, and carbon nanotubes, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed novel programmable materials....

Im Focus: Miniature double glazing: Material developed which is heat-insulating and heat-conducting at the same time

Styrofoam or copper - both materials have very different properties with regard to their ability to conduct heat. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz and the University of Bayreuth have now jointly developed and characterized a novel, extremely thin and transparent material that has different thermal conduction properties depending on the direction. While it can conduct heat extremely well in one direction, it shows good thermal insulation in the other direction.

Thermal insulation and thermal conduction play a crucial role in our everyday lives - from computer processors, where it is important to dissipate heat as...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer IAF establishes an application laboratory for quantum sensors

In order to advance the transfer of research developments from the field of quantum sensor technology into industrial applications, an application laboratory is being established at Fraunhofer IAF. This will enable interested companies and especially regional SMEs and start-ups to evaluate the innovation potential of quantum sensors for their specific requirements. Both the state of Baden-Württemberg and the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft are supporting the four-year project with one million euros each.

The application laboratory is being set up as part of the Fraunhofer lighthouse project »QMag«, short for quantum magnetometry. In this project, researchers...

Im Focus: How Cells Assemble Their Skeleton

Researchers study the formation of microtubules

Microtubules, filamentous structures within the cell, are required for many important processes, including cell division and intracellular transport. A...

Im Focus: World Premiere in Zurich: Machine keeps human livers alive for one week outside of the body

Researchers from the University Hospital Zurich, ETH Zurich, Wyss Zurich and the University of Zurich have developed a machine that repairs injured human livers and keep them alive outside the body for one week. This breakthrough may increase the number of available organs for transplantation saving many lives of patients with severe liver diseases or cancer.

Until now, livers could be stored safely outside the body for only a few hours. With the novel perfusion technology, livers - and even injured livers - can now...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

11th Advanced Battery Power Conference, March 24-25, 2020 in Münster/Germany

16.01.2020 | Event News

Laser Colloquium Hydrogen LKH2: fast and reliable fuel cell manufacturing

15.01.2020 | Event News

„Advanced Battery Power“- Conference, Contributions are welcome!

07.01.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Molecules move faster on a rough terrain

20.01.2020 | Physics and Astronomy

Spider-Man-style robotic graspers defy gravity

20.01.2020 | Physics and Astronomy

Laser diode emits deep UV light

20.01.2020 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>