Neurovascular communication in the brain
Function and homeostasis of the brain relies on communication between the complex network of cells, which compose this organ. Consequently, development of the different groups of cells in the brain needs to be coordinated in time and space.
The group of Amparo Acker-Palmer (Buchmann Institute of Molecular Life Sciences and the Institute of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Goethe University) reported in a Research Article in the last issue of the journal Science a novel function of blood vessels in orchestrating the proper development of neuronal cellular networks in the brain.
It is known that vascularization of the brain is necessary to provide neurons and glial cells with oxygen and nutrients important for the metabolic support of neuronal networks. “For several years, we knew that the vascular and nervous systems used very similar vocabulary to develop and function and therefore we postulated that such a common vocabulary could be used to ensure that both systems co-developed in synchronicity and communicated with each other for proper brain function,” explained Acker-Palmer.
To study the communication of the blood vessels and neuronal cells the Acker-Palmer group focused on different aspects of neurovascular development. First, they used the vascularization of the mouse retina as a well-established method to investigate molecules important for vascular growth.
Using this method, they discovered that a molecule, Reelin, that had been previously shown to influence neuronal migration was also able to independently influence the growth of vessels using a very similar signaling mechanism by activating the ApoER2 receptor and the Dab1 protein expressed in endothelial cells.
A very important structure in the brain is the cerebral cortex, which plays a key role in all basic functions such as memory, attention, perception, language and consciousness. Neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex are organized in layers and this organization is established during embryonic development.
“We decided to eliminate exclusively the Reelin signaling cascade from the endothelial cells and see how this influenced the arrangement of neurons and glial cells in the cerebral cortex,” said Acker-Palmer.
Using this system, the scientists revealed the astonishing finding that endothelial cells instruct neurons as to their correct positioning in the cerebral cortex. Mechanistically, they could show that endothelial cells secrete laminins that are deposited in the extracellular matrix surrounding the vessels to anchor properly the glial cell fibers that are necessary for proper neuronal migration and for the proper development of the cerebral cortex.
In the mature brain, glial cells also wrap around the blood capillaries and prevent harmful substances from the blood stream from entering the brain. This is known as the “blood brain barrier” and it is an essential structure that develops in the brain to keep homeostasis. Importantly, Acker-Palmer and her team also showed that the same signaling cascades used by endothelial cells in the cerebral cortex to orchestrate neuronal migration are used to establish communication at the blood brain barrier.
“Several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders have been associated with abnormal neurovascular communication. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathways and mechanisms involved in such communication is fundamental to finding new approaches for treating dementia and mental illness.”
Publication: Endothelial Dab1 signaling orchestrates neuro-glia-vessel communication in the central nervous system
(Segarra et al., Science 361, eaao2861 (2018).
Picture to Download: www.uni-frankfurt.de/73456362
Caption: Blood vessels in red in close communication with proliferating neuronal cells in the mouse cortex at embryonic day 10 (Photo: Cecilia Llao-Cid).
Information: Prof. Amparo Acker-Palmer, Institute of Cellular Biology and Neuroscience, Buchmann Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, Campus Riedberg, Tel.: (069) 798-42563, Acker-Palmer@bio.uni-frankfurt.de
Prof. Amparo Acker-Palmer, Institute of Cellular Biology and Neuroscience, Buchmann Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, Campus Riedberg, Tel.: (069) 798-42563, Acker-Palmer@bio.uni-frankfurt.de
Endothelial Dab1 signaling orchestrates neuro-glia-vessel communication in the central nervous system
(Segarra et al., Science 361, eaao2861 (2018).
Jennifer Hohensteiner | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
TU Dresden chemists develop noble metal aerogels for electrochemical hydrogen production and other applications
06.04.2020 | Technische Universität Dresden
First SARS-CoV-2 genomes in Austria openly available
03.04.2020 | CeMM Forschungszentrum für Molekulare Medizin der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Electrolytes play a key role in many areas: They are crucial for the storage of energy in our body as well as in batteries. In order to release energy, ions - charged atoms - must move in a liquid such as water. Until now the precise mechanism by which they move through the atoms and molecules of the electrolyte has, however, remained largely unknown. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research have now shown that the electrical resistance of an electrolyte, which is determined by the motion of ions, can be traced back to microscopic vibrations of these dissolved ions.
In chemistry, common table salt is also known as sodium chloride. If this salt is dissolved in water, sodium and chloride atoms dissolve as positively or...
Drops of water falling on or sliding over surfaces may leave behind traces of electrical charge, causing the drops to charge themselves. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz have now begun a detailed investigation into this phenomenon that accompanies us in every-day life. They developed a method to quantify the charge generation and additionally created a theoretical model to aid understanding. According to the scientists, the observed effect could be a source of generated power and an important building block for understanding frictional electricity.
Water drops sliding over non-conducting surfaces can be found everywhere in our lives: From the dripping of a coffee machine, to a rinse in the shower, to an...
90 million-year-old forest soil provides unexpected evidence for exceptionally warm climate near the South Pole in the Cretaceous
An international team of researchers led by geoscientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) have now...
The bacteria that cause tuberculosis need iron to survive. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now solved the first detailed structure of the transport protein responsible for the iron supply. When the iron transport into the bacteria is inhibited, the pathogen can no longer grow. This opens novel ways to develop targeted tuberculosis drugs.
One of the most devastating pathogens that lives inside human cells is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacillus that causes tuberculosis. According to the...
An international team with the participation of Prof. Dr. Michael Kues from the Cluster of Excellence PhoenixD at Leibniz University Hannover has developed a new method for generating quantum-entangled photons in a spectral range of light that was previously inaccessible. The discovery can make the encryption of satellite-based communications much more secure in the future.
A 15-member research team from the UK, Germany and Japan has developed a new method for generating and detecting quantum-entangled photons at a wavelength of...
06.04.2020 | Event News
02.04.2020 | Event News
26.03.2020 | Event News
06.04.2020 | Life Sciences
06.04.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering
06.04.2020 | Social Sciences