Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Blocking receptor in key hormone fires up enzyme to kill pancreatic cancer cells

11.08.2011
Thomas Jefferson University research suggests a potential target—Angiotensin II type 2 receptor—for chemopreventive agents to fight pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer researchers at Thomas Jefferson University have shown, for the first time, that blocking a receptor of a key hormone in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) reduces cancer cell growth by activating the enzyme AMPK to inhibit fatty acid synthase, the ingredients to support cell division.

With that, a new chemopreventive agent that inhibits the angiotensin II type 2 receptor—never before thought to play a role in tumor growth—could be developed to help treat one of the fastest-moving cancers that has a 5-year survival rate of only 5 percent.

Hwyda Arafat, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of Surgery at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University and the co-director of the Jefferson Pancreatic, Biliary and Related Cancers Center, and her fellow researchers, including the chair of the Department of Surgery at Jefferson, Charles J. Yeo, M.D., FACS, present their findings in the August issue of Surgery.

Angiotensin II (AngII) is the principal hormone in the RAS that regulates our blood pressure and water balance; it has two receptors: type 1 and type 2. AngII is also generated actively in the pancreas and has been shown to be involved in tumor angiogenesis.

Previous studies have pointed to the hormone's type 1 receptor as the culprit in cancer cell proliferation and tumor inflammation; however, the idea that type 2 had any effect was never entertained.

By looking at pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells in vitro, Jefferson researchers discovered that the type 2 receptor, not just type 1, mediates the production of fatty acid synthase (FAS), which has been shown to supply the cell wall ingredients necessary for cancer cells to multiply.

FAS was previously identified as a possible oncogene in the 1980s. It is up-regulated in breast cancers and is indicator of poor prognosis, and thus believed to be a worthwhile chemopreventive target.

"AngII is not just involved in cell inflammation and angiogenesis; it's involved in tumor metabolism as well," said Dr. Arafat, a member of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson. "It promotes FAS with both receptors, which makes the tumor grow."

"Blocking the type 2 receptor reduces PDA cell growth with the activation of AMPK, revealing a new mechanism by which chemoprevention can exploit," she added. "In fact, maybe combined blocking of the two receptors would be more efficient than just blocking one receptor."

AMPK, or adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, is the focus of several agents today, including ones for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. It is a master metabolic regulator for cells that is activated in times of reduced energy availability, like starvation. Activation of AMPK has been shown to improve energy homeostasis, lipid profile and blood pressure. The enzyme also activates a well-known tumor suppressor, p53.

"The main thing is activation of AMPK in tumor cells," said Dr. Arafat. "AMPK is the perfect candidate as it regulates multiple targets that both halt tumor cell division and activate programmed cell death. Although it is yet to be determined how the type 2 receptor imposes deregulation of AMPK activity, identification of the type 2 receptor as a novel target for therapy is very exciting"

Next, Dr. Arafat and fellow researchers are proposing to take this research into animal studies. They hope to target the receptors early on in the disease to better understand its prevention capabilities and also study its treatment potential. Considering pancreatic cancer is typically detected in later stages, finding better ways to treat cases that have progressed further along would be of great benefit to patients.

Thomas Jefferson University, the largest freestanding academic medical center in Philadelphia, is composed of Jefferson Medical College, Jefferson College of Graduate Studies, Jefferson School of Population Health, Jefferson School of Health Professions, Jefferson School of Pharmacy, and Jefferson School of Nursing. Jefferson is regarded nationally as one of the best universities offering a range of comprehensive programs for the education of health professions. Thomas Jefferson University partners with Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, its education and clinical care affiliate.

Steve Graff | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jefferson.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Seeing on the Quick: New Insights into Active Vision in the Brain
15.08.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

nachricht New Approach to Treating Chronic Itch
15.08.2018 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Diving robots find Antarctic winter seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide

15.08.2018 | Earth Sciences

Early opaque universe linked to galaxy scarcity

15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>