Buchnera are vital to the aphids well being as they provide essential amino acids that are scarce in its diet. Now research published in the open access journal BMC Biology suggests that the aphids' ability to host Buchnera depends on genes they acquired from yet another species of bacteria via lateral gene transfer (LGT).
Atsushi Nakabachi from Japan's RIKEN institute with his colleagues had previously uncovered two clusters of mRNA sequences from the bacteriocyte of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum that were encoded in the aphid genome, but similar to bacterial genes. Naruo Nikoh from The Open University of Japan and Nakabachi determined these sequences in full for more detailed analysis, and used real-time quantitative RT-PCR experiments to investigate the genes' expression levels in the aphid bacteriocytes.
The evidence points to LGT from bacteria to aphids. Genetic family trees show that one of the genes came from a bacterium closely related to Wolbachia, a common inherited symbiotic microbe, which infects a high proportion of insects. The aphid strain used for the study is free from Wolbachia and other closely related bacteria, but the transferred gene could be a remnant of an infection in the distant past. The evidence suggests that the aphids use these acquired genes to host Buchnera, which has lost many genes that appear to be essential for bacterial life. The association between aphids and Buchnera is over 100 million years old, and has evolved so that today neither the bacteria nor the host can reproduce without the other.
"The cases presented here are of special interest in that these transferred bacterial genes not only retain their functionality, but are highly expressed in the bacteriocyte that is differentiated so as to harbour Buchnera, which lack such genes," says Nakabachi.
LGT (also referred to as horizontal gene transfer) occurs when genetic material from one organism finds its way into another organism other than its offspring. Genetic engineering uses LGT deliberately, but there is increasing evidence that LGT has taken place in many organisms (usually between unicellular organisms) naturally. This has caused a major shift in how biologists view genetic family trees.
Charlotte Webber | EurekAlert!
Further reports about: > Acyrthosiphon pisum > Aphids > Buchnera aphidicola > Genetic > LGT > Nakabachi > Wolbachia > amino acid > aphid bacteriocytes > aphid genome > bacteriocytes > lateral gene transfer > mRNA sequences > mutualistic bacteria > quantitative RT-PCR experiments > symbiotic microbe > unicellular organisms
Nanobot pumps destroy nerve agents
21.08.2018 | American Chemical Society
How do muscles know what time it is?
21.08.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.
The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
21.08.2018 | Medical Engineering
21.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
21.08.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering