Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Sandwich technique eases 3D optical chip fabrication

21.12.2007
Complex three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits involving both optical and electronic elements are now easier to make, thanks to a “wafer bonding” technique developed by a European research consortium. With the right commercial backing, the new technology will help Europe stay competitive in communications and sensor technology.

Photonics is the science of controlling photons – the particles that make up light. Photonic devices are essential in telephone and computer networks, where they manage the flow of information along optical fibres. Pollution monitors, laser rangefinders, surgical lasers and DVD players are other examples of photonics in action.

Photonic devices are made on chips, in a similar way to electronic circuits, by combining elements such as laser diodes, waveguides and detectors. Some of these circuits use purely optical technology, but most are hybrids that include both photonic and electronic components.

The problem, as Helmut Heidrich of the Fraunhofer Institute for telecommunications in Berlin explains, is that the growing complexity of these devices is pushing the limits of current manufacturing technology. In particular, photonic components are based on special semiconductors such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or indium phosphide (InP), while most electronic components use silicon. Working with two fundamentally different materials on the same chip is difficult and expensive.

Instead of using two types of semiconductor in the same process, an alternative might be to fabricate separate slices, each made from one basic material, and then stick the slices together. In June 2004, a team of European scientists set out to show that this “wafer bonding” technique could be an effective way to make complex multi-layer photonic devices.

The EU-supported WAPITI project was coordinated by the Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications and had four other academic partners: Romania’s National Institute for R&D in Microtechnologies, the Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics in Germany, the University of Athens, and the University of Cambridge in the UK. A fifth partner, the E V Group (Austria), contributed its expertise in processing and machinery for full wafer bonding. WAPITI began in June 2004 and finished in September 2007.

Microring lasers

To show the potential of wafer bonding, the project partners set out to build optical elements known as active microring resonators. Microrings, which act as power storage devices, are a key part of the lasers which allow high-bandwidth communications signals to be spread across a wide range of laser frequencies. They also have great potential as wavelength converters for telecommunications, and in monitoring applications, such as the detection of biological or chemical substances.

Using InP and GaAs wafer substrates, the WAPITI team created various kinds of microrings with radii down to 10 µm. The two-layer technique allowed them to create microrings with vertical connections to the transparent waveguides that carry light in and out of the microrings. Compared to the standard technique of horizontal coupling on a single layer, vertical coupling allows the production of smaller microrings, which in turn means higher data rates. The researchers tested their microring lasers with several channels of wavelength division multiplexing, at data rates up to 7 Gbit/s.

Accurate alignment is one of the biggest challenges in wafer bonding. Each wafer is a slice of semiconductor material large enough to hold thousands of chips; only towards the end of the process are the individual chips separated and packaged. With the width of the smallest electronic circuit elements now down to 45 nm or less, accurate alignment across the whole wafer is crucial.

Maintaining alignment is hard enough over a single wafer, but even trickier when two wafers are made separately and then bonded. Different wafer materials have different rates of thermal expansion, so temperature changes during processing can distort the alignment of the tiny multilayer circuit elements.

Using electron beam lithography, the WAPITI partners achieved good results in aligning wafers of InP and GaAs 50 mm in diameter – currently the standard wafer size for these materials. Future development will bring the need to bond 50 mm InP and GaAs wafers to full-size (300 mm) silicon wafers. For this more difficult task, “step-and-repeat” masking techniques may replace the current system of fabricating each layer as a single unit, Heidrich believes.

Practical technology

Although the project did not include an end-user, Heidrich is confident that the technology developed during WAPITI is very marketable. The partners are now looking for a commercial company with an interest in taking their devices to the next level.

He is particularly upbeat about potential applications in environmental monitoring. Because of their small size, the microring lasers developed by the project have output powers of less than 1 mW, so they are not suitable for long-distance communications, which requires powers of 6-30 mW. Their high-quality resonators are, however, extremely sensitive to surface modifications, so they should have many applications as novel detectors for biological or chemical substances, Heidrich believes.

Christian Nielsen | alfa
Further information:
http://cordis.europa.eu/ictresults/index.cfm/section/news/tpl/article/BrowsingType/Features/ID/89356

More articles from Information Technology:

nachricht Open source software helps researchers extract key insights from huge sensor datasets
22.03.2019 | Universität des Saarlandes

nachricht Touchscreens go 3D with buttons that pulsate and vibrate under your fingertips
14.03.2019 | Universität des Saarlandes

All articles from Information Technology >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The taming of the light screw

DESY and MPSD scientists create high-order harmonics from solids with controlled polarization states, taking advantage of both crystal symmetry and attosecond electronic dynamics. The newly demonstrated technique might find intriguing applications in petahertz electronics and for spectroscopic studies of novel quantum materials.

The nonlinear process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases is one of the cornerstones of attosecond science (an attosecond is a billionth of a...

Im Focus: Magnetic micro-boats

Nano- and microtechnology are promising candidates not only for medical applications such as drug delivery but also for the creation of little robots or flexible integrated sensors. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) have created magnetic microparticles, with a newly developed method, that could pave the way for building micro-motors or guiding drugs in the human body to a target, like a tumor. The preparation of such structures as well as their remote-control can be regulated using magnetic fields and therefore can find application in an array of domains.

The magnetic properties of a material control how this material responds to the presence of a magnetic field. Iron oxide is the main component of rust but also...

Im Focus: Self-healing coating made of corn starch makes small scratches disappear through heat

Due to the special arrangement of its molecules, a new coating made of corn starch is able to repair small scratches by itself through heat: The cross-linking via ring-shaped molecules makes the material mobile, so that it compensates for the scratches and these disappear again.

Superficial micro-scratches on the car body or on other high-gloss surfaces are harmless, but annoying. Especially in the luxury segment such surfaces are...

Im Focus: Stellar cartography

The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona released its first image of the surface magnetic field of another star. In a paper in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, the PEPSI team presents a Zeeman- Doppler-Image of the surface of the magnetically active star II Pegasi.

A special technique allows astronomers to resolve the surfaces of faraway stars. Those are otherwise only seen as point sources, even in the largest telescopes...

Im Focus: Heading towards a tsunami of light

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation. Ultra-intense light pulses consist of the motion of a single wave and can be described as a tsunami of light. The strong wave can be used to study interactions between matter and light in a unique way. Their research is now published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

"This source of radiation lets us look at reality through a new angle - it is like twisting a mirror and discovering something completely different," says...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

International Modelica Conference with 330 visitors from 21 countries at OTH Regensburg

11.03.2019 | Event News

Selection Completed: 580 Young Scientists from 88 Countries at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting

01.03.2019 | Event News

LightMAT 2019 – 3rd International Conference on Light Materials – Science and Technology

28.02.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Solving the efficiency of Gram-negative bacteria

22.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Bacteria bide their time when antibiotics attack

22.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Open source software helps researchers extract key insights from huge sensor datasets

22.03.2019 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>