Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Artificial neural network resolves puzzles from condensed matter physics: Which is the perfect quantum theory?

12.07.2019

For some phenomena in quantum many-body physics several competing theories exist. But which of them describes a quantum phenomenon best? A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Harvard University in the United States has now successfully deployed artificial neural networks for image analysis of quantum systems.

Is that a dog or a cat? Such a classification is a prime example of machine learning: artificial neural networks can be trained to analyze images by looking for patterns that are characteristic of specific objects. Provided the system has learned such patterns, it is able to recognize dogs or cats on any picture.


Artificial intelligence helps physicists find the optimal description of quantum phenomena.

Picture: Annabelle Bohrdt and Christoph Hohmann / MCQST

Using the same principle, neural networks can detect changes in tissue on radiological images. Physicists are now using the method to analyze images – so-called snapshots – of quantum many-body systems and find out which theory describes the observed phenomena best.

The quantum world of probabilities

Several phenomena in condensed matter physics, which studies solids and liquids, remain shrouded in mystery. For example, so far it remains elusive why the electrical resistance of high-temperature superconductors drops to zero at temperatures of about -200 degrees Celsius.

Understanding such extraordinary states of matter is challenging: quantum simulators based on ultracold Lithium atoms have been developed to study the physics of high-temperature superconductors.

They take snapshots of the quantum system, which exists simultaneously in different configurations – physicists speak of a superposition. Each snapshot of the quantum system gives one specific configuration according to its quantum mechanical probability.

In order to understand such quantum systems, various theoretical models have been developed. But how well do they reflect reality? The question can be answered by analyzing the image data.

Neural networks investigate the quantum world

To this end, a research team at the Technical University of Munich and at Harvard University has successfully employed machine learning: The researchers trained an artificial neural network to distinguish between two competing theories.

"Similar to the detection of cats or dogs in pictures, images of configurations from every quantum theory are fed into the neural network," says Annabelle Bohrdt, a doctoral student at TUM. "The network parameters are then optimized to give each image the right label – in this case, they are just theory A or theory B instead of cat or dog."

After the training phase with theoretical data, the neural network had to apply what it had learned and assign snapshots from the quantum simulators to theory A or B. The network thus selected the theory which is more predictive.

In the future the researchers plan to use this new method to assess the accuracy of several theoretical descriptions. The aim is to understand the main physical effects of high-temperature superconductivity, which has many important applications, with lossless electric power transmission and efficient magnetic resonance imaging being just two examples.

More information:

The research was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Air Force's Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Program of the US-Department of Defense, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation EPIQS program, the Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) as part of the Cluster of Excellence Munich Center for Quantum Science and Technology (MCQST) and the Transregio TRR80 as well as the TUM Institute for Advanced Study, funded by the German Excellence Initiative and the European Union, where Prof. Knap holds the Rudolf Mößbauer Tenure Track Professorship for Collective Quantum Dynamics.

Wissenschaftliche Ansprechpartner:

Prof. Dr. Michael Knap
Professorship for Collective Quantum Dynamics
Technical University of Munich
James-Franck Str. 1, 85748 Garching
Tel.: +49 89 289 53777
e-mail: michael.knap@ph.tum.de
Web: http://users.ph.tum.de/ga32pex/

Originalpublikation:

Classifying snapshots of the doped Hubbard model with machine learning
Annabelle Bohrdt, Christie S. Chiu, Geoffrey Ji, Muqing Xu, Daniel Greif, Markus Greiner, Eugene Demler, Fabian Grusdt und Michael Knap
nature physics, July 1, 2019 - DOI: 10.1038/s41567-019-0565-x
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41567-019-0565-x

Weitere Informationen:

https://www.tum.de/nc/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/35570/ Link to the press release

Dr. Ulrich Marsch | Technische Universität München

More articles from Information Technology:

nachricht Advanced AI boosts clinical analysis of eye images
19.09.2019 | Universitätsspital Bern

nachricht Quantum computers by AQT and University of Innsbruck leverage Cirq for quantum algorithm development
16.09.2019 | Universität Innsbruck

All articles from Information Technology >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: 'Nanochains' could increase battery capacity, cut charging time

How long the battery of your phone or computer lasts depends on how many lithium ions can be stored in the battery's negative electrode material. If the battery runs out of these ions, it can't generate an electrical current to run a device and ultimately fails.

Materials with a higher lithium ion storage capacity are either too heavy or the wrong shape to replace graphite, the electrode material currently used in...

Im Focus: Stevens team closes in on 'holy grail' of room temperature quantum computing chips

Photons interact on chip-based system with unprecedented efficiency

To process information, photons must interact. However, these tiny packets of light want nothing to do with each other, each passing by without altering the...

Im Focus: Happy hour for time-resolved crystallography

Researchers from the Department of Atomically Resolved Dynamics of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg, the University of Hamburg and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) outstation in the city have developed a new method to watch biomolecules at work. This method dramatically simplifies starting enzymatic reactions by mixing a cocktail of small amounts of liquids with protein crystals. Determination of the protein structures at different times after mixing can be assembled into a time-lapse sequence that shows the molecular foundations of biology.

The functions of biomolecules are determined by their motions and structural changes. Yet it is a formidable challenge to understand these dynamic motions.

Im Focus: Modular OLED light strips

At the International Symposium on Automotive Lighting 2019 (ISAL) in Darmstadt from September 23 to 25, 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, a provider of research and development services in the field of organic electronics, will present OLED light strips of any length with additional functionalities for the first time at booth no. 37.

Almost everyone is familiar with light strips for interior design. LED strips are available by the metre in DIY stores around the corner and are just as often...

Im Focus: Tomorrow´s coolants of choice

Scientists assess the potential of magnetic-cooling materials

Later during this century, around 2060, a paradigm shift in global energy consumption is expected: we will spend more energy for cooling than for heating....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Optical Technologies: International Symposium „Future Optics“ in Hannover

19.09.2019 | Event News

Society 5.0: putting humans at the heart of digitalisation

10.09.2019 | Event News

Interspeech 2019 conference: Alexa and Siri in Graz

04.09.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quality control in immune communication: Chaperones detect immature signaling molecules in the immune system

20.09.2019 | Life Sciences

Moderately Common Plants Show Highest Relative Losses

20.09.2019 | Life Sciences

The Fluid Fingerprint of Hurricanes

20.09.2019 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>