Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Submarine springs offer preview of ocean acidification effects on coral reefs

29.11.2011
Observations at submarine springs found along the coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula are giving scientists a preview of the possible fate of coral reef ecosystems in response to ocean acidification.

The naturally low pH (a measure of acidity) in the water around the springs creates conditions similar to those that will result from the widespread acidification of surface waters that scientists expect to occur as the oceans absorb increasing amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Ecological surveys around the springs found small, patchily distributed colonies of only a few species of corals, without the structurally complex corals that compose the framework of the nearby Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, one of the Caribbean's largest coral reef ecosystems.

A team led by scientists at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has been studying the submarine springs at Puerto Morelos near the Mesoamerican reef for the past three years. The researchers reported their findings in a paper published in the journal Coral Reefs (published online Nov. 20).

"This study has some good news and some bad news for corals," said coauthor Adina Paytan, a research professor in the Institute of Marine Sciences at UC Santa Cruz. "The good news is that some species of corals are able to calcify and grow at very low pH. The bad news is that these are not the ones that build the framework of the coral reefs. So if this is an indication of what will happen with future ocean acidification, the reefs will not be as we know them today."

The submarine springs, known as "ojos," occur along the eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. Limestone "karst" landforms near the coast feature underground drainage systems that discharge brackish water at the ojos. The discharged water has lower pH than the surrounding seawater, and these conditions have existed for thousands of years. Lowering the pH affects the chemical equilibrium of seawater with respect to calcium carbonate, reducing the concentration of carbonate ions and making it harder for organisms such as corals to build and maintain structures of calcium carbonate.

Paytan's team monitored the pH and other conditions at ten ojos and conducted ecological surveys around each site. The researchers found that the number of coral species and the size of coral colonies declined with increasing proximity to the center of an ojo. Only a few species of hard corals were found in waters with the lowest carbonate saturation levels, closest to the ojos. These species are rarely major contributors to the framework of Caribbean reefs, but their ability to form carbonate skeletons in low-pH conditions warrants further study, Paytan said.

"We need to understand the mechanisms that allow these corals to calcify at these low-pH conditions. We should also make sure that the places where these species occur are protected," she said.

The low pH and low carbonate saturation near the ojos are comparable to the conditions scientists expect to see worldwide due to ocean acidification by the year 2100. Other conditions at the ojos are different, however, including somewhat lower salinity and high nutrient concentrations in the discharge water. Evidence from previous studies suggests that the low salinity is not responsible for the patterns seen around the ojos, since coral species that tolerate similarly low salinity occur in the region but were not found near the ojos. The high nutrient concentrations may benefit the corals, helping them compensate for the increased energy needed for calcification under low-pH conditions.

Elizabeth Crook, a graduate student in Earth and planetary sciences at UC Santa Cruz, is first author of the Coral Reefs paper. In addition to Crook and Paytan, the coauthors include Donald Potts, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at UCSC, and Mario Rebolledo-Vieyra and Laura Hernández at the Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation.

Tim Stephens | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucsc.edu

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Upcycling of PET Bottles: New Ideas for Resource Cycles in Germany
25.06.2018 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlässigkeit LBF

nachricht Dry landscapes can increase disease transmission
20.06.2018 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers

A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A smart safe rechargeable zinc ion battery based on sol-gel transition electrolytes

20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Reversing cause and effect is no trouble for quantum computers

20.07.2018 | Information Technology

Princeton-UPenn research team finds physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern

20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>