Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New research on rapidly-disappearing ancient plant offers hope for species recovery

14.07.2010
Genetic analysis of Guam's cycads shows promising genetic diversit

Cycads, "living fossil" descendents of the first plants that colonized land and reproduced with seeds, are rapidly going extinct because of invasive pests and habitat loss, especially those species endemic to islands.

But new research on Cycas micronesica published recently as the cover article in Molecular Ecology calls into question the characterization of these plants as relicts (leftovers of formerly abundant organisms), and gives a glimpse into how the remaining plants—those that survived the loss of more than 90% of their population—can be conserved and managed. By sampling what is left of C. micronesica on Guam, researchers, including some from the American Museum of Natural History, found moderate genetic variation within local populations and different levels of gene flow between populations.

"Cycas micronesica is one of the most ecologically important plants on Guam and nearby islands, and it is now rapidly disappearing," says Angélica Cibrián-Jaramillo, a researcher at the American Museum of Natural History and at The New York Botanical Garden. "But with new genomic tools we developed microsatellite markers to quickly assess individual plants. This technique is ideal for species that need quick answers for conservation reasons." Microsatellite markers are short genetic sequences typically used to determine how individuals are related to each other (kinship) and other population studies.

Cycads have been around for about 300 million years and are among the first spermatophytes, or plants that reproduce with seeds. Although this group's large crowns of feathery compound leaves was once common, cycads now number about 300 species throughout the world, and about half of these are threatened or endangered. C. micronesica is found on four island groups in Micronesia.

Within four years, the millions of C. micronesica on Guam were reduced by more than 90%. The primary culprit was an insect that often parasitizes plants (in this case, a scale) that invaded Guam in 2003, although other invasive species including butterflies and feral pigs are contributing to plant mortality. The invasive species are also spreading to other islands.

"This ecological disaster is typical on islands," says Thomas Marler, professor at the University of Guam. "There has been a cascade of invasive species in a short time. This study will give conservation groups information about how to manage the surviving plants: the most efficient way to establish nurseries and where to collect seeds, and how to reintroduce them if the [invasive] insect is brought under control."

For this study, Marler collected leaf samples from all C. micronesica habitats on Guam, and Cibrián-Jaramillo found 18 genetic populations among 24 locations. The results showed that local populations are not genetically poor but instead have moderate genetic variation with some inbreeding, which is what would be expected in longer-lived plants with similar seed dispersal. The amount of genetic flow between Guam's populations was low but very dynamic within regions in the island, which means that plants are similar genetically and the observed variation points to patterns of seed dispersal. Cycas micronesica plants in the north are more likely to be related to each other, while populations in the south are genetically different from each other. This contrast is most likely due to southern Guam's more fragmentary forests, more rivers for seed transportation (C. micronesica seeds are one of the few cycad seeds that float), and the smaller size of seeds, which can be dispersed to greater distances.

"We hope that these results from the plant perspective will fit into the management of invasive insects in general, which is one of the most important drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide and very costly economically," says Rob DeSalle, curator at the American Museum of Natural History who works in the Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics.

In addition to Cibrián-Jaramillo, Marler, and DeSalle, authors of this paper (Molecular Ecology 19, 2364-2379, doi 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04638.x) include Aidan Daly of the Museum's Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics and Eric Brenner of New York University. The research was funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Program for Molecular Systematics at the American Museum of Natural History and The New York Botanical Garden.

Kristin Elise Phillips | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.amnh.org

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Waste in the water – New purification techniques for healthier aquatic ecosystems
24.07.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

nachricht Plenty of habitat for bears in Europe
24.07.2018 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Diving robots find Antarctic winter seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide

15.08.2018 | Earth Sciences

Early opaque universe linked to galaxy scarcity

15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>