Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

XIVth International Colloquium on Soil Zoology and Ecology

09.09.2004


Soils provide humans with a whole range of irreplaceable ecosystem services the production and maintenance of which are largely dependent on the actions of the animal communities which inhabit them. Apart from the substantial agricultural production made necessary by humanity’s demand for food, soils filter and store water, holding back erosion and flooding. They provide a large proportion of the nutrients necessary for plant growth and for maintaining biodiversity, and at the same time limit greenhouse-gas emissions by storing organic matter. They are a rich harbour of biodiversity. But their associated processes are barely understood.

Soil quality is often overlooked in farming practice. Yet it is one of the key factors for rendering ecosystem services. Soils become depleted by intensive cultivation, erosion, deforestation or pollution. Subsurface fauna communities, which play a prime role in the preservation and maintenance of this quality, are often largely eliminated by farming procedures in which they are not taken into account. Burrowing animals create soil structure which limits the impact of erosion and provides zones underground where water can accumulate. This underground activity also offers prospects for atmospheric detoxification by means of carbon sequestration, and control of methane production or of oxidising agents such as nitric oxide. Earthworms, termites and ants –known indeed as soil or ecosystem engineers- regulate the activity of smaller organisms, thereby controlling the various stages of soil biogeochemical cycles. They stimulate the auxiliary micro-organisms of plants while limiting the impact of parasites, for example extremely harmful soil nematodes. The presence and diversity of these animals is naturally an indicator of the “good health” of the land they inhabit.

Research on these aspects is vital at a time when the preoccupation of those in soil management is no longer solely straightforward agricultural production. These practitioners are concerned about farming’s negative effects on other ecosystem services this medium performs. The pieces of research presented will draw a picture of the range of influences the fauna exerts and set out for soil managers alternative methods and indices potentially useful for evaluation and adjustment of soil management practices and policies.



The symposium will be opened jointly by Mr Jean-Louis Buër, Director of the Ministerial Office of the French Secretary of State for Agriculture, Food, Fisheries and Rural Affairs, Mr Patrice Cayré, Director of Department Living resources of the Institut de recherche pour le développement and Mr Jean-Luc Nahel, president of the University of Rouen, demonstrating the interest in soil fauna research shared by the agricultural and scientific worlds.

This symposium is organised by the IRD UMR (mixed research unit) “Biodiversité et Fonctionnement du Sol” and the University of Rouen. Other partners have lent their support to this event: ADEME, Universities Paris VI and Paris XII, the French Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the CTA. Conservation of diversity in soils and development of new methods suitable for sustainable development are two necessities that were expressed at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit Conference.

The research work of UMR "Biodiversité et Fonctionnement du Sol", headed by Patrick Lavelle, professor at University of Paris VI, responds to this dual requirement. In fact, this UMR is tackling these two objectives together, with the conviction that they are intimately bound together and cannot be achieved separately.

The importance of preserving biodiversity needs no further demonstration, but it is not always compatible with human activity and its impact on the environment. At the meeting point of two scientific worlds where there has been little exchange, the objective of the UMR "Biodiversité et Fonctionnement du Sol " research team is to generate a truly cross-disciplinary approach which uses the concepts and tools from the two communities, soil scientists and ecologists.

Elodie Vignier | alfa
Further information:
http://www.ird.fr
http://www.bondy.ird.fr/biosol/

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Waste in the water – New purification techniques for healthier aquatic ecosystems
24.07.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

nachricht Plenty of habitat for bears in Europe
24.07.2018 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

Im Focus: World record: Fastest 3-D tomographic images at BESSY II

The quality of materials often depends on the manufacturing process. In casting and welding, for example, the rate at which melts solidify and the resulting microstructure of the alloy is important. With metallic foams as well, it depends on exactly how the foaming process takes place. To understand these processes fully requires fast sensing capability. The fastest 3D tomographic images to date have now been achieved at the BESSY II X-ray source operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.

Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno and his team have designed a turntable that rotates ultra-stably about its axis at a constant rotational speed. This really depends...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Early opaque universe linked to galaxy scarcity

15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Molecular switch detects metals in the environment

15.08.2018 | Materials Sciences

Seeing on the Quick: New Insights into Active Vision in the Brain

15.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>