Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Huge market for forest moss raises concerns

04.08.2004


A huge, largely underground industry has been built on the moss that drapes some forest trees, raising ecological concerns, questions about export of potentially invasive species, and other issues that have scientists, land managers and businesses unsure about how to monitor, regulate or control this market amid so many uncertainties.

A report on this trade in forest moss – which is sometimes legal, often on the black market - was made today by a botanist from Oregon State University, speaking at the annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America.

"Certain types of mosses and lichens, often those that hang on hardwood trees such as vine maple or big leaf maple, are prized for their use in the floral trade," said Patricia Muir, an OSU professor of botany and plant pathology. "The moss is used in planters, wreaths, hanging baskets, other floral displays. And it has become a big business and big money."



How big? That’s part of the problem, no one really knows. The newest studies done by Muir suggests it must be at least $5.5 million a year, but it could also range up to $165 million annually, mostly in the Pacific Northwest and parts of the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern U.S.

Sometimes the moss is harvested legally, by permits on public lands or contractual arrangement on private land, Muir said. But there’s strong evidence that the amount taken by permit or private legal arrangements is just the tip of the iceberg of actual harvests.

"Any penalties for illegal taking of moss are usually small and rarely enforced," Muir said. "There also is a lack of record keeping and reporting on many public lands, and clearly some illegal harvesting on both public and private forests."

But legalities aside, millions of pounds of moss are leaving America’s forests every year, and that has ecologists concerned.

"When large amounts of moss are taken from an area, we aren’t sure what species may grow back in their place," Muir said. "There may be some inadvertent removal of endangered species. We could be shipping dangerous insect pests overseas in untreated moss samples. And moss may play an important role in nutrient cycling that is not yet fully understood."

Moss also holds about 10 times its weight in water, Muir said, and acts as a natural sponge, a hydrologic buffer to help control the flow of water in forests. Some threatened species such as the marbled murrelet build their nests in moss mats. And the moss is habitat for hundreds of insect species.

"We don’t really know whether the removal of this much moss is a serious problem, because no one has studied it very carefully," Muir said. "Right now it’s safe to say that whatever we decide about a reasonable amount of moss to allow harvested is just a seat-of-the-pants-guess."

And that assumes, she said, that there is an effective management or enforcement structure in place to control moss harvest, once quotas are decided upon. In fact, there is not.

"Amid land managers, there’s a lot of frustration about any type of enforcement of moss regulations," Muir said. "When you consider all the issues relating to timber, streams, fisheries, salmon, endangered species, there is hardly anyone left who has time to worry about moss."

Ideally, Muir said, enlightened managers would know more about their moss resource, how fast it regrows, what amount could be safely removed, and which sensitive habitats should be avoided. Harvesters would be trained, maybe even have a long-term lease on a parcel of forest land, and there would be some degree of enforcement of rules and permits in a system that encouraged trust, respect and responsibility.

The moss industry is very unorganized, which is part of what makes it so difficult to regulate. Some of the harvesters are "mom and pop" businesses that are difficult to tell from a couple out for a walk in the woods, Muir said. The moss may bring the harvesters 50 cents to $2 a pound when they sell it to a wholesaler, more often at the low end of that range.

But the pounds can add up. Muir estimates – again, with a huge range of variability – that between 2 and 82 million pounds of moss is used in, or exported from the U.S. each year, with a final market value that could approach $165 million. Domestic sales, which are largely unknown, are estimated based on the value of export sales which are easier to track, and the known ratio between the amount of moss used locally versus that which is exported. Muir estimated that the moss being harvested in the U.S. could fill between 600 and 2,400 semi-trucks per year.

In her survey, Muir contacted 361 land managers, 97 botanists and 98 businesses. About 64 percent of botanists felt that the volume of moss being removed was of concern.

In the East, the concern about moss harvests in some areas is sufficiently high that the Monongahela National Forest has stopped issuing any harvest permits. In the Pacific Northwest, some business owners are concerned enough about illegal harvests that they have hired private security guards to patrol lands on which they have legally leased the moss rights.

"There’s still a lot we don’t know here, but there clearly are ecological concerns," Muir said. "Moss harvesting is a big business and it’s all around us. We were doing some research up the McKenzie River valley near Eugene and we had a hard time finding a place in the forest, within a reasonable distance from roads, where the moss had not already been picked."

Patricia Muir | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.oregonstate.edu

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Robotic fish to replace animal testing
17.06.2019 | Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg

nachricht Marine oil snow
12.06.2019 | University of Delaware

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fraunhofer IDMT demonstrates its method for acoustic quality inspection at »Sensor+Test 2019« in Nürnberg

From June 25th to 27th 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT in Ilmenau (Germany) will be presenting a new solution for acoustic quality inspection allowing contact-free, non-destructive testing of manufactured parts and components. The method which has reached Technology Readiness Level 6 already, is currently being successfully tested in practical use together with a number of industrial partners.

Reducing machine downtime, manufacturing defects, and excessive scrap

Im Focus: Successfully Tested in Praxis: Bidirectional Sensor Technology Optimizes Laser Material Deposition

The quality of additively manufactured components depends not only on the manufacturing process, but also on the inline process control. The process control ensures a reliable coating process because it detects deviations from the target geometry immediately. At LASER World of PHOTONICS 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be demonstrating how well bi-directional sensor technology can already be used for Laser Material Deposition (LMD) in combination with commercial optics at booth A2.431.

Fraunhofer ILT has been developing optical sensor technology specifically for production measurement technology for around 10 years. In particular, its »bd-1«...

Im Focus: The hidden structure of the periodic system

The well-known representation of chemical elements is just one example of how objects can be arranged and classified

The periodic table of elements that most chemistry books depict is only one special case. This tabular overview of the chemical elements, which goes back to...

Im Focus: MPSD team discovers light-induced ferroelectricity in strontium titanate

Light can be used not only to measure materials’ properties, but also to change them. Especially interesting are those cases in which the function of a material can be modified, such as its ability to conduct electricity or to store information in its magnetic state. A team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg used terahertz frequency light pulses to transform a non-ferroelectric material into a ferroelectric one.

Ferroelectricity is a state in which the constituent lattice “looks” in one specific direction, forming a macroscopic electrical polarisation. The ability to...

Im Focus: Determining the Earth’s gravity field more accurately than ever before

Researchers at TU Graz calculate the most accurate gravity field determination of the Earth using 1.16 billion satellite measurements. This yields valuable knowledge for climate research.

The Earth’s gravity fluctuates from place to place. Geodesists use this phenomenon to observe geodynamic and climatological processes. Using...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on UV LED Technologies & Applications – ICULTA 2020 | Call for Abstracts

24.06.2019 | Event News

SEMANTiCS 2019 brings together industry leaders and data scientists in Karlsruhe

29.04.2019 | Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

2nd International Conference on UV LED Technologies & Applications – ICULTA 2020 | Call for Abstracts

24.06.2019 | Event News

'Sneezing' plants contribute to disease proliferation

24.06.2019 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

Researchers find new mutation in the leptin gene

24.06.2019 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>