Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Fish oil supplements may contain flame retardants

17.03.2004


Flame retardants have been showing up in some surprising places, from human breast milk to peregrine falcon eggs. Now this growing list can be expanded to include dietary supplements based on cod liver oil, according to a new study.



European scientists have found that flame retardant levels have increased significantly during the past four years in products containing cod liver oil, a common component of dietary supplements. The report appears in the April 7 edition of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Chemical Society, the world’s largest scientific society.

Fish and vegetable oils are in high demand as dietary supplements because they contain omega 3 fatty acids, which have been linked to various health benefits, including reduced risk of heart disease.


In recent years, however, scientists have shown that fish oils are prone to contamination by organic chemicals. For example, researchers have found that farm-raised salmon contain more contaminants than wild salmon, which they attribute partly to the fish oils used to supplement salmon feed.

"We analyzed 21 commercially available fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements for selected contaminants," says Miriam Jacobs, Ph.D., who lectures in food safety and toxicology at the University of Surrey in Guildford, U.K, and was one of the authors of the latest study involving cod liver oil. The supplements, purchased from retailers in the U.K., contained four classes of oils: pure vegetable oils, fish and vegetable oil formulations, cod liver oil and whole body fish oil.

Jacobs and her coworkers measured levels of persistent organic pollutants in the supplements, including pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are used widely as flame retardants. They then compared the values with levels measured in the same brands purchased eight years ago from the same retailers, and with fish oils used to supplement salmon aquaculture feeds obtained four years ago. In earlier work, Jacobs had found a relationship between pollutants in these feeds and in farmed European salmon.

Supplements based on vegetable oil and whole body fish oil showed little or no contamination throughout the current and previous studies. "The cod liver oils have similar levels of PCBs and pesticides compared to samples obtained from the same outlets," Jacobs says. "But the levels of flame retardants are higher."

Flame retardant levels in cod liver oils from the new study ranged from about 15-34 nanograms per gram of fat, while the range was 0-13 only four years ago. "This is a relatively large increase," Jacobs says. "The extensive use of these chemicals in recent years means that they can get into places where they shouldn’t be, such as the marine environment."

The findings add to a growing number of studies that have found flame retardants in unexpected places, from human breast milk in the United States to peregrine falcon eggs in Sweden.

Not only does the new study have environmental implications, but it could also have dietary repercussions. "It suggests that a consumer can reduce her or his intake of the persistent organic pollutants by changing to a formulation that contains less cod liver oil, and that contains a proportion of vegetable oil sources of omega 3 fatty acids," Jacobs says.

Vegetable oils contain short-chain fatty acids, which are generally thought to offer less health benefit than the long-chain fatty acids from fish oils. Researchers have shown, however, that humans can metabolize and produce long-chain fatty acids from short-chain vegetable sources. This metabolism may not be very efficient, according to Jacobs, so a healthy adult would probably need to consume 8-10 times more vegetable oil supplements to get similar health benefits.

These are not definitive dietary recommendations, Jacobs cautions. "We hope these findings will stimulate further research into the newer pollutants to better protect the public and the environment," she says. "Regulatory authorities conduct food-monitoring programs for dioxins and PCBs, but far less so for other contaminants."

Regulations should also consider other potential routes of exposure, Jacobs says, including farmed salmon that are fortified with fish oil to increase their omega 3 fatty acid content. Fish oils are also used as feed supplements for farm animals, including sheep, cows and chickens.

Allison Byrum | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.acs.org/

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Dry landscapes can increase disease transmission
20.06.2018 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.

nachricht 100 % Organic Farming in Bhutan – a Realistic Target?
15.06.2018 | Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Graphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film

22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Fast rising bedrock below West Antarctica reveals an extremely fluid Earth mantle

22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View

22.06.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>