A dramatic increase in deformed frogs and other amphibians is being caused by a range of environmental factors, all of which ultimately can be linked to human impacts on habitat, but the primary cause of many of the deformities is an epidemic of a key parasite.
These findings are the results of eight years of research by scientists around the world, and are presented in the February issue of Scientific American by researchers from Oregon State University and the University of Wisconsin.
The cause of a disturbing increase in amphibians with deformities are explored in a new article in Scientific American by researchers from Oregon State University and the University of Wisconsin. Extra legs, such as those found on the frogs in these images, are one of the most common deformities.
Click on image to go to downloadable photo
According to the researchers, the story of the parasitic trematode reveals just how complicated natural ecological processes can be, and how difficult it is to trace problems to their underlying cause. In its life cycle, the parasite at times depends on snails for survival and birds for reproduction and transportation. The amphibians, themselves, are actually just an intermediary host.
"We need to understand the complex relationships among human activity, the parasite and its hosts, and the environment in which they interact," Johnson said.
There are many interrelationships among various factors. Snails, for instance, are necessary to the life cycle of the trematode that can cause frog deformities. But snail populations may be surging at some sites due to fertilizer runoff and cattle manure that cause algal blooms and more food for the snails. A survey of the western U.S. in 2000 found that 44 of the 59 wetlands in which amphibians were infected by this parasitic trematode were reservoirs, farm ponds or other artificial bodies of water.
And water pollutants or UVB radiation, while not directly causing the majority of deformities, may set the stage by weakening an amphibians immune system and making it more vulnerable to a parasitic infection.
"The challenge to scientists becomes teasing apart these agents to understand their interactions," the researchers said in this article. "Humans and other animals may be affected by the same environmental insults harming amphibians. We should heed their warning."
Andrew Blaustein | EurekAlert!
Upcycling of PET Bottles: New Ideas for Resource Cycles in Germany
25.06.2018 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlässigkeit LBF
Dry landscapes can increase disease transmission
20.06.2018 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
16.07.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
16.07.2018 | Life Sciences
16.07.2018 | Earth Sciences