Prior to the federal Clean Air Act, unhindered industrial emissions were released into the air throughout the Midwestern and Eastern United States for decades. Many of those harmful chemicals came right back down to earth in the form of acid rain, a chemical concoction that includes nitric and sulfuric acid.
Researchers have long known that acid rain can severely decrease the diversity of plant and animal communities in fresh water lakes and ponds. However, little is known about how microscopic bacteria, which form the foundation of freshwater ecosystems, respond to acidification.
To address this knowledge gap, researchers at the Darrin Fresh Water Institute of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed one of the most comprehensive databases in existence on the impacts of acid rain at the foundation of the biological community.
The team found a general link between increased acidity and decreased bacterial diversity, but surprisingly, most of the dominant species of bacteria were not directly impacted by acidification. However, some rarer types of bacterial populations were significantly or strongly correlated to acidity, rising and falling with fluctuations in water pH. The findings could eventually allow scientists to use these bacteria as indicators of lake recovery, according to Sandra Nierzwicki-Bauer, director of the Darrin Fresh Water Institute and professor of biology.
The research is part of a much broader study on how Adirondack lakes are recovering from the impacts of acidification. “Thanks in large part to the federal Clean Air Act and increased state focus on improving air quality here in New York, we are seeing a number of these lakes on a trajectory to recovery, but up until now we have had little understanding of the changing biodiversity of microbial communities within the impacted lakes as they recover,” Nierzwicki-Bauer said. “I hope this study will help other scientists expand on the research and use this data to uncover additional information on how acid-impacted lakes and their ecosystems are recovering and how we can hasten that process.”
The study was published in a recent edition of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology and was undertaken in partnership with the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography. The study is part of what has been a 12-year analysis on the recovery of Adirondack lakes from the effects of acid rain funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Adirondack Effects Assessment Program (AEAP). The study included bacterial samples from 18 lakes, ponds, and reservoirs in various stages of recovery from acidification in the Adirondack mountain region of New York state.
For the current study, 31 physical and chemical parameters were examined for each water body, ranging from water clarity and temperature to aluminum and hydraulic retention time for a one-year period. Clone “libraries” representing the bacteria were developed from the lake samples and analyzed. The researchers found that the species diversity in acid-impacted Adirondack lakes were similar to bacterial communities in other, non-impacted freshwater systems
The impacts of acidity on most types of bacteria, including the freshwater classes of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, were found to be indirect, and population levels appeared more directly linked to a combination of acidity along with other environmental factors such as lake depth and carbon content. Several less abundant types of bacteria, including a species known as Alphaproteobacteria, were strongly correlated to acidity and might someday be used as indicators of lake recovery from acidification, according to Nierzwicki-Bauer.
The researchers are in the process of expanding their study to include an additional 13 Adirondack lakes. They also plan to further investigate the role of specific types of bacteria in the ecosystem to better understand why certain bacteria are so directly impacted by acidity while others appear relatively unaffected.About Rensselaer
Improving the monitoring of ship emissions
03.08.2020 | Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg
Microplastics transport metallic pollutants: pursuing the Trojan horse
24.07.2020 | Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht - Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung
“Core-shell” clusters pave the way for new efficient nanomaterials that make catalysts, magnetic and laser sensors or measuring devices for detecting electromagnetic radiation more efficient.
Whether in innovative high-tech materials, more powerful computer chips, pharmaceuticals or in the field of renewable energies, nanoparticles – smallest...
An international research team with Prof. Cornelia Denz from the Institute of Applied Physics at the University of Münster develop for the first time light fields using caustics that do not change during propagation. With the new method, the physicists cleverly exploit light structures that can be seen in rainbows or when light is transmitted through drinking glasses.
Modern applications as high resolution microsopy or micro- or nanoscale material processing require customized laser beams that do not change during...
Although no life has been detected on the Martian surface, a new study from astrophysicist and research scientist at the Center for Space Science at NYU Abu...
New approach creates synthetic layered magnets with unprecedented level of control over their magnetic properties
The magnetic properties of a chromium halide can be tuned by manipulating the non-magnetic atoms in the material, a team, led by Boston College researchers,...
Scientists of Tomsk Polytechnic University jointly with a team of the V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences have discovered a method to increase the operation range of optical traps also known
Optical tweezers are a device which uses a laser beam to move micron-sized objects such as living cells, proteins, and molecules. In 2018, the American...
23.07.2020 | Event News
21.07.2020 | Event News
07.07.2020 | Event News
03.08.2020 | Information Technology
03.08.2020 | Information Technology
03.08.2020 | Life Sciences