Vaccines are used in aquaculture to avoid outbreaks of infection from bacteria and viruses. If given at the start of the sea-water phase, oil-based vaccines provide protection against bacterial infection for the entire life in the animal.
However, oil-based vaccines produce local side-effects in the form of pigmentation and adhesions between internal organs, which in some cases are severe enough to reduce the carcase quality at slaughter. The underlying mechanisms of side-effect development are little known.
Stephen Mutoloki discovered that the reaction to the vaccine, and especially to the bacterial component of the vaccine, comes in several “waves”. These waves consist of cells that migrate to the injection site, and in the van of these is the “rapid-response troop”, the neutrophilic granulocytes. These are followed by the “clean-up team”, the macrophages, and later still by the cells that provide the actual protection against disease later in life, the lymphocytes.
This is the same sequence one finds in a natural infection and is the result of a collaboration between the processes of inflammation and of immunity. How aggressive the reaction within the tissue is, depends on how many granulocytes that are involved and how many clean-up cells arrive.
The main findings in Dr. Mutoloki’s work show that the species has a lot to say for how effectively the “clean-up” progresses. The rainbow trout has in general more effective cleaning-up cells, while the Atlantic salmon does a poorer job with a correspondingly greater and longer-lasting tissue reaction. The clean-up phase is also affected by the vaccine’s composition, that is, the more unrefined a vaccine, the more inflammatory cells that will accumulate and the greater the tissue reaction.
The type of antigen in the vaccine is also significant. Moritella viscosa is, for example, more difficult to clean up after than Aeromonas salmonicida. And if the vaccinated fish uses more resources to clean up than to create immunity against future infections, the tissue relation may become too dominating and produce unwanted side-effects.
Magnhild Jenssen | alfa
Waste in the water – New purification techniques for healthier aquatic ecosystems
24.07.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
Plenty of habitat for bears in Europe
24.07.2018 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
17.08.2018 | Information Technology
17.08.2018 | Life Sciences