Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Pesticides significantly reduce biodiversity in aquatic environments

18.06.2013
Current pesticide risk assessment falls short of protecting biodiversity

The pesticides, many of which are currently used in Europe and Australia, are responsible for reducing the regional diversity of invertebrates in streams and rivers by up to 42 percent, researchers report in the Proceedings of the US Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Mikhail A. Beketov and Matthias Liess from the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) in Leipzig, together with Ben Kefford from the University of Technology, Sydney and Ralf B. Schäfer from the Institute for Environmental Sciences Landau, analysed the impact of pesticides, such as insecticides and fungicides, on the regional biodiversity of invertebrates in flowing waters using data from Germany, France and Victoria in Australia. The authors of the now-published study state that this is the first ever study which has investigated the effects of pesticides on regional biodiversity.

Pesticides, for example those used in agriculture, are among the most-investigated and regulated groups of pollutants. However, until now it was not known whether, or to which extent, and at what concentrations their use causes a reduction in biodiversity in aquatic environments. The researchers investigated these questions and compared the numbers of species in different regions: in the Hildesheimer Boerde near Braunschweig, in southern Victoria in Australia and in Brittany in France.

In both Europe and Australia, the researchers were able to demonstrate considerable losses in the regional biodiversity of aquatic insects and other freshwater invertebrates. A difference in biodiversity of 42 percent was found between non-contaminated and strongly-contaminated areas in Europe; in Australia, a decrease of 27 percent was demonstrated. The researchers also discovered that the overall decrease in biodiversity is primarily due to the disappearance of several groups of species that are especially susceptible to pesticides. These mainly include representatives of the stoneflies, mayflies, caddisflies, and dragonflies and are important members of the food chain right up to fish and birds. Biological diversity in such aquatic environments can only be sustained by them because they ensure a regular exchange between surface and ground water, thus functioning as an indicator of water quality.

Protection concepts fall short of requirements
One worrying result from the study is that the impact of pesticides on these tiny creatures is already catastrophic at concentrations which are considered protective by current European regulation. The authors point out that the use of pesticides is an important driver for biodiversity loss and that legally-permitted maximum concentrations do not adequately protect the biodiversity of invertebrates in flowing waters. New concepts linking ecology with ecotoxicology are therefore urgently needed. "The current practice of risk assessment is like driving blind on the motorway", cautions the ecotoxicologist Matthias Liess. To date, the approval of pesticides has primarily been based on experimental work carried out in laboratories and artificial ecosystems. To be able to assess the ecological impact of such chemical substances properly, existing concepts need to be validated by investigations in real environments as soon as possible. "The latest results show that the aim of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity to slow down the decline in the number of species by 2020 is jeopardized. Pesticides will always have an impact on ecosystems, no matter how rigid protection concepts are, but realistic considerations regarding the level of protection required for the various ecosystems can only be made if validated assessment concepts are implemented." The threat to biodiversity from pesticides has obviously been underestimated in the past.

Bettina Hennebach

http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=31771

Publication
M.A. Beketov, B.J. Kefford, R.B. Schäfer, and M. Liess (2013): "Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates". PNAS, Early Edition. 17 June 2013, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1305618110
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1305618110
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/recent
The study has been funded by the Helmholtz Association as part of the ECOLINK research project.
Participating institutions
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig, (Germany)
Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau
Centre for Environmental Sustainability, University of Technology Sydney (Australia)
Further information
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ)
Dr. Mikhail Beketov
Tel. 0341-235-1495
http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=3718
and
PD Dr. Matthias Liess
Tel. 0341-235-1578
http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=3714
or via
Tilo Arnhold (UFZ press office)
Tel.: +49-341-235-1635
http://www.ufz.de/index.php?de=640
Institute for Environmental Sciences
University Koblenz-Landau
Jun.-Prof. Dr. Ralf B. Schäfer
Tel.: 06341 280-31536
schaefer-ralf@uni-landau.de
Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Sydney, Australia
Dr. Ben Kefford
Tel.: 61 2 9514 4087
Email: ben.kefford@uts.edu.au
Links
"Digging from bothe sides" in: "Chemicals in the environment" (page 6)
http://www.ufz.de/export/data/global/44068_ufzspezial_okt_2012.pdf
Study: Pesticide authorisation procedures fail to adequately protect biodiversity in rivers (Press release 31 May 2012):
http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=30499
Pesticides pollute European waterbodies more than previously thought (Press release 13 October 2011):
http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=22196
ECOLINK-Projekt:
http://www.ufz.de/ecolink/index.php?en=17206
At the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) scientists are researching the causes and consequences of far-reaching changes to the environment. They are concerned with water resources, biological diversity, the consequences of climate change and adaptability, environmental and biotechnologies, bioenergy, the behaviour of chemicals in the environment, their effect on health, modelling and social science issues. Their guiding theme: Our research contributes to the sustainable use of natural resources and helps to secure this basis for life over the long term under the effects of global change. The UFZ employs 1,100 people in Leipzig, Halle and Magdeburg. It is financed by the federal government and the federal states of Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt.

http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=11382

The Helmholtz Association contributes towards solving major challenges facing society, science and the economy with top scientific achievements in six areas of research: Energy, Earth and Environment, Health, Key Technologies, Structure of Matter, Transport and Space. With over 34 000 employees working in 18 research centres and an annual budget of around 3.8 billion Euros, the Helmholtz Association is the largest scientific organisation in Germany. Its work continues the tradition established by the natural scientist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894).

http://www.helmholtz.de

Bettina Hennebach/Tilo Arnhold | UFZ News
Further information:
http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=11382

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Upcycling of PET Bottles: New Ideas for Resource Cycles in Germany
25.06.2018 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlässigkeit LBF

nachricht Dry landscapes can increase disease transmission
20.06.2018 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Global study of world's beaches shows threat to protected areas

19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences

New creepy, crawly search and rescue robot developed at Ben-Gurion U

19.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Metal too 'gummy' to cut? Draw on it with a Sharpie or glue stick, science says

19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>