Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Pesticides are more toxic for soil organisms in dry soil and at enhanced temperatures

11.09.2014

Soil organisms react more sensitive to marketable pesticides when exposed in dry soil and at enhanced temperatures. Both conditions may occur more often in the future due to climate change. Singularly and combined these factors lower the toxicity threshold of fungicides for springtails.

The study by scientists from the LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), the Goethe University and the ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH was published in the September issue of the journal "Applied Soil Ecology".


The experiment, also conducted using the species Sinella curviseta showed a significant influence of extreme cli-matic conditions on the toxicity of the fungicide pyrimethanil.

© C. Bandow

Springtails are tiny, about 10 mm large creatures, which participate in essential soil functions. Its numerous species, include Folsomia candida and Sinella curviseta, and are widely distributed. They form part of a huge crowd of soil organisms, which decompose organic material and build up humus. If springtails are affected, therefore soil fertility will be affected too.

As the new study shows, low soil moisture (i.e. 30 % of the water holding capacity) leads to significant reduction of springtail juveniles. "We experimented with two different species of springtails. Both of them – but especially Folsomia candida – might have difficulties to produce enough offspring to keep a population stable in dry soil," says Cornelia Bandow, an ecologist at ECT Ecotoxicology GmbH, who conducts research for the German Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F).

Extreme climate conditions may also alter the effect of pesticides on soil organisms. "Low soil moisture and enhanced temperatures significantly lower the threshold upon which the fungicide pyrimethanil may be toxic." explains Cornelia Bandow. In the framework of this study the toxic threshold refers to the concentration of the fungicide at which the population is 50 % less than in an uncontaminated soil. Thus at 26 degrees and a soil moisture of 30 % the threshold was up to half of the threshold that was measured at 20 degrees and 50 % soil moisture.

The experiment was conducted using 66 test vessels filled with a standard soil which was treated with different concentrations of pyrimethanil. Pyrimethanil is a broad spectrum fungicide, which is used on strawberries, pome fruit and vine to protect against and treat fungal infestation. To test for future climate conditions, the experiments were performed independently at two different temperatures of 20 degrees and 26 degrees. The soil was furthermore moistened to different moisture levels. After 28 days researchers counted the individuals to determine the reproductive success of the model organisms under the different climatic conditions.

Should fungicides thus be avoided at all so as not to harm soil organisms? Not necessarily. "A risk for springtails under field conditions may not be expected as the toxic threshold of pyrimethanil is far above the maximum concentrations that may occur in soil if the fungicide is used according to existing regulations," says Bandow and adds "It depends on the species and the substance whether the sensitivity alters under extreme climate conditions or not." Therefore, the researchers also plan to test several other pesticides using a variety of soil organisms.

Paper:
Bandow, Cornelia, Karau, Nora, Römbke, Jörg. Interactive effects of pyrimethanil, soil moisture and temperature on Folsomia candida and Sinella curviseta (Collembola).
- Applied Soil Ecology, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2014.04.010

For more information please contact:

Cornelia Bandow
LOEWE Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum (BiK-F) &
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH
Tel. +49 (0) 6145 9564 11
c.bandow@ect.de

or
Sabine Wendler
LOEWE Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum (BiK-F),
Press officer
Tel. +49 (0)69 7542 1838
Sabine.wendler@senckenberg.de

 
LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
With the objective of analysis the complex interactions between biodiversity and climate through a wide range of methods, the Biodiversität und Klima Forschungszentrum [Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre] (BiK‐F) has been funded since 2008 within the context of the Landes‐ Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlichökonomischer Exzellenz (LOEWE) of the Land of Hessen. The Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Goethe University in Frankfurt as well as other, directly involved partners, co‐operate closely with regional, national and international institutions in the fields of science, resource and environmental management, in order to develop projections for the future and scientific recommendations for sustainable action. For further details, please visit www.bik‐f.de

Sabine Wendler | Senckenberg

Further reports about: BiK-F Biodiversity Biodiversität Climate ECT Ecology Senckenberg conditions fungicide moisture species temperatures toxic

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht 5000 tons of plastic released into the environment every year
12.07.2019 | Empa - Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt

nachricht Climate impact of clouds made from airplane contrails may triple by 2050
27.06.2019 | European Geosciences Union

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Better thermal conductivity by adjusting the arrangement of atoms

Adjusting the thermal conductivity of materials is one of the challenges nanoscience is currently facing. Together with colleagues from the Netherlands and Spain, researchers from the University of Basel have shown that the atomic vibrations that determine heat generation in nanowires can be controlled through the arrangement of atoms alone. The scientists will publish the results shortly in the journal Nano Letters.

In the electronics and computer industry, components are becoming ever smaller and more powerful. However, there are problems with the heat generation. It is...

Im Focus: First-ever visualizations of electrical gating effects on electronic structure

Scientists have visualised the electronic structure in a microelectronic device for the first time, opening up opportunities for finely-tuned high performance electronic devices.

Physicists from the University of Warwick and the University of Washington have developed a technique to measure the energy and momentum of electrons in...

Im Focus: Megakaryocytes act as „bouncers“ restraining cell migration in the bone marrow

Scientists at the University Würzburg and University Hospital of Würzburg found that megakaryocytes act as “bouncers” and thus modulate bone marrow niche properties and cell migration dynamics. The study was published in July in the Journal “Haematologica”.

Hematopoiesis is the process of forming blood cells, which occurs predominantly in the bone marrow. The bone marrow produces all types of blood cells: red...

Im Focus: Artificial neural network resolves puzzles from condensed matter physics: Which is the perfect quantum theory?

For some phenomena in quantum many-body physics several competing theories exist. But which of them describes a quantum phenomenon best? A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Harvard University in the United States has now successfully deployed artificial neural networks for image analysis of quantum systems.

Is that a dog or a cat? Such a classification is a prime example of machine learning: artificial neural networks can be trained to analyze images by looking...

Im Focus: Extremely hard yet metallically conductive: Bayreuth researchers develop novel material with high-tech prospects

An international research group led by scientists from the University of Bayreuth has produced a previously unknown material: Rhenium nitride pernitride. Thanks to combining properties that were previously considered incompatible, it looks set to become highly attractive for technological applications. Indeed, it is a super-hard metallic conductor that can withstand extremely high pressures like a diamond. A process now developed in Bayreuth opens up the possibility of producing rhenium nitride pernitride and other technologically interesting materials in sufficiently large quantity for their properties characterisation. The new findings are presented in "Nature Communications".

The possibility of finding a compound that was metallically conductive, super-hard, and ultra-incompressible was long considered unlikely in science. It was...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on UV LED Technologies & Applications – ICULTA 2020 | Call for Abstracts

24.06.2019 | Event News

SEMANTiCS 2019 brings together industry leaders and data scientists in Karlsruhe

29.04.2019 | Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Heat flow through single molecules detected

19.07.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Heat transport through single molecules

19.07.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Welcome Committee for Comets

19.07.2019 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>