Researchers from the UFZ warn that ecosystems will change dramatically
In their joint publication in the journal „Ecology Letters" German and American biologists have reported an increase in biomass production in ecosystems colonised by non-native plant species. In the face of climate change, these and other changes to ecosystems are predicted to become more frequent, according to the researchers.
Invasive exotic plant species, such as the Turkish Rocket (Bunias orientalis), are often fast-growing and competitive. They may alter ecosystems by gaining dominance, increasing productivity and replacing native plant species. The current study shows that in grassland ecosystems, native generalist herbivores such as voles – which are usually considered as a pest – may provide substantial resistance to plant invasions.
Photo: Harald Auge/UFZ
All over the world, plant and animal species are increasingly encroaching upon ecosystems where they don't belong as a result of human influence. This phenomenon is known as a biological invasion. Observational studies on biological invasions show that the invasion of non-native plant species can alter ecosystems. One important aspect of this is biomass production: compared to intact ecosystems, the productivity of ecosystems with non-native species is considerably higher.
„In such purely observational studies however, it is not possible to differentiate between cause and effect", says Dr. Harald Auge from the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ). „The question is whether exotic plant species prefer to colonise more productive ecosystems, or whether increased productivity is a result of the invasion."
To get to the bottom of this question, UFZ researchers joined forces with colleagues from the Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, the University of Montana, the University of California and the US Forest Service and staged invasions by setting up experimental sites in three disparate grassland regions -in Central Germany, Montana and California, on which 20 native plant species (from the respective region) and 20 exotic plant species were sown.
Researchers investigated whether and to which extent herbivorous small mammals such as mice, voles or ground squirrels as well as mechanical disturbance to the soil would influence exotic plant species colonizing ability.
The experimental design was exactly the same for all three regions to ensure comparability. We wanted to find out whether superordinate relationships were playing a role, irrespective of land use, species compositions and climate differences", explains Dr Auge. When the experimental sites were not subject to any mechanical disturbance and when herbivorous small mammals had open access to the sites, then no differences could be found between the three regions in their reaction to the sowing of exotic species: biomass production was found to be only slightly higher than for ecosystems with exclusively native plant species, and susceptibility to invasions was low.
„The herbivorous small mammals really surprised us", says Dr Auge. „Their presence and appetite is largely responsible for the resistance of grasslands to exotic plant species invasions". If the herbivorous small mammals were excluded using fences or the soil disturbed mechanically or both, then the results were considerably different: ecosystems proved to be less resistant to invasions and biomass production turned out to be considerably higher.
„It was perplexing that an increase in productivity applied to all three (from a climate perspective) completely disparate regions. Hence, there seems to be a universal phenomenon going on: exotic plant species do not necessarily prefer more productive ecosystems -their exotic provenance as such leads to an increased production of biomass, which is thus an effect and not the cause of the invasion", Dr Auge resumes.
So far there has been no explanation as to why exotic plant species increase biomass production so dramatically. It is possible that only those non-native species that are particularly productive and competitive are able to establish successfully in a new area. Another cause could be the lack of parasites and pathogens specialised on these species.
To investigate the long-term reactions of grassland ecosystems on the establishment of non-native plant species, the researchers plan future investigations on the further development of the species on the experimental sites. Dr Auge: „We assume that the non-natives will increasingly crowd out the natives from the ecosystem -a reduction in species richness would imply another dramatic change to native ecosystems." Nicole Silbermann
Photos & links: http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=32498
Publication: Maron, J.L.; Auge, H.; Pearson, D. E.; Korell, L.; Hensen, I.; Suding, K. N.; Stein, C. (2014) Staged invasions across disparate grasslands: effects of consumers, disturbance and seed provenance on productivity and species richness. Ecology Letters 17: 499-507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.12250
Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research - UFZ
Dr. Harald Auge
or Tilo Arnhold, Susanne Hufe (UFZ Press)
Tel.: +49-(0)341-235-1635, -1630
In the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), scientists conduct research into the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. Their areas of study cover water resources, biodiversity, the consequences of climate change and possible adaptation strategies, environmental technologies and biotechnologies, bio-energy, the effects of chemicals in the environment and the way they influence health, modelling and social-scientific issues. Its guiding principle: Our research contributes to the sustainable use of natural resources and helps to provide long-term protection for these vital assets in the face of global change. The UFZ employs more than 1,100 staff at its sites in Leipzig, Halle and Magdeburg. It is funded by the federal government, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt. http://www.ufz.de/
The Helmholtz Association contributes to solving major and urgent issues in society, science and industry through scientific excellence in six research areas: Energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter as well as aviation, aerospace and transportation. The Helmholtz Association is the largest scientific organisation in Germany, with 35,000 employees in 18 research centres and an annual budget of around €3.8 billion. Its work is carried out in the tradition of the great natural scientist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894). http://www.helmholtz.de/
Nicole Silbermann/Tilo Arnhold | UFZ News
Upcycling of PET Bottles: New Ideas for Resource Cycles in Germany
25.06.2018 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlässigkeit LBF
Dry landscapes can increase disease transmission
20.06.2018 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
17.07.2018 | Information Technology
17.07.2018 | Materials Sciences
17.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering