Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Endangered monkeys in the Amazon are more diverse than previously thought, study finds

14.01.2015

Climate change, construction and soy plantations threaten to wipe out multiple species

Research by UCLA life scientists and 50 colleagues sheds new light on the biological differences among more than 150 species of monkeys in South America, many of which are endangered. Their findings could be particularly important in shaping efforts to conserve the biodiversity of primates in South America.


This is an image of a black-headed squirrel monkey in Brazil.

Credit: Fernanda P. Paim

The scientists have resolved a dispute over whether a small population of black-headed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri vanzolinii), which are found only in an isolated part of Brazil, is a sub-species of another species or its own species.

"We found strong evidence that it's a distinct, separate species," said co-author Jessica Lynch Alfaro, an adjunct assistant professor in the department of anthropology in the UCLA College and a member of UCLA's Institute for Society and Genetics. "It's its own unique group."

The scientists, who hail from the U.S. and six other countries, used genetic and statistical analysis to find that this group of monkeys split from its sister group, called Saimiri ustus, about 500,000 years ago, and from a group called Saimiri boliviensis approximately 1.3 million years ago. Researchers previously had thought that Saimiri boliviensis and Saimiri vanzolinii were the same species.

The understanding that Saimiri vanzolinii is its own distinct group is particularly significant because the monkeys' survival is being threatened by climate change.

"They may lose all of their habitat," Lynch Alfaro said. "This species has the smallest, most restricted habitat of any Amazonian primate, and it has been predicted that the habitat may be drastically altered due to changes in weather patterns as a result of global warming."

The monkeys live in a flooded forest in Mamirauá, an extremely isolated part of the Amazon. The area has a predictable seasonal cycle, where the water rises and descends, with average changes of about 35 feet during the course of the year. However, if the rain patterns there shift as climatologists predict, torrential rains and longer-lasting floods could dramatically change the habitat, making it unsuitable for this and other monkey species.

The research was a collaboration among Lynch Alfaro; Michael Alfaro, a UCLA associate professor of ecology and evolutionary biology; and an international team of primatologists. The results are published in 14 papers in a special January issue of the journal Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution; Alfaro and Lynch Alfaro are senior authors of four of the studies.

"This collection of papers is a major step toward understanding the evolutionary history and biogeographic history that have given rise to the species that we see in South American today, and it will play a key role in identifying conservation priorities for species," Alfaro said.

One study led by Janet Buckner, a graduate student in Alfaro's laboratory, solves a long-standing mystery in the evolution of small-bodied tamarin monkeys, which spread throughout the Western Amazon basin in an area larger than California and Texas combined.

Buckner used genetic and statistical analyses to show how these monkeys--part of a group known as marmosets and tamarins--spread across South America. She and colleagues found that small-bodied tamarins and large-bodied tamarins separated geographically and genetically some 9 million years ago, then evolved on their own before coming back into contact with each other approximately 5 million years later. They are much more distinct than scientists realized, she found.

"They are unique and genetically distinct," Lynch Alfaro said. "Humans are more closely related to chimpanzees than small tamarins are to large tamarins."

Alfaro said that today's small tamarins have acquired unique features as a result of 9 million years of unique evolutionary history. To find food, for example, large tamarins stalk and pounce on easily observed insects; small tamarins seek out insects under bark and in tree holes, he said.

The scientists are calling the small-bodied tamarins Leontocebus and reporting that they are a rather diverse group, with significant color variations ranging from white to brown.

Primates have been relatively safe in the Amazon basin, but climate change and the construction of large hydro-electric dams and the rise of enormous soy plantations in the area are taking a toll on primates. About half of the species of monkeys in South America are threatened, said Lynch Alfaro, who has conducted field work in the Amazon and other habitats in South America for 19 years.

The new research has enabled scientists to test the ideas of Alfred Russel Wallace, an early 20th century anthropologist whose life and work are being celebrated at UCLA throughout the academic year. "We're following in his footsteps," Alfaro said. "He's overshadowed by Darwin, but if there were no Darwin, everyone would be talking about Wallace."

For example, Wallace observed that primates on different sides of large rivers look significantly different and he hypothesized that major rivers that feed the Amazon serve as boundaries that cause diversity.

To test that hypothesis, Alfaro, Lynch Alfaro and colleagues collected and tested tissue samples from monkeys living on both sides of Brazil's Rio Negro and Rio Branco (which feeds the Rio Negro).

They found that the monkeys were there before the formation of the Rio Negro, which then separated the monkeys from each other and led to the diversification of their features, Lynch Alfaro said.

"They're distinctly different because the river isolated them on either side when it formed," she said.

The Rio Branco, meanwhile, served as a stopping point for six different kinds of monkeys, limiting the distribution of uakari monkeys, titi monkeys and gracile capuchin monkeys to the west, and saki monkeys, large tamarins and robust capuchins to the east -- and confirming Wallace's hypothesis.

###

The research was funded by the National Science Foundation.

Media Contact

Stuart Wolpert
swolpert@support.ucla.edu
310-206-0511

 @uclanewsroom

http://www.newsroom.ucla.edu 

Stuart Wolpert | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: Amazon evolutionary history habitat monkeys primates species

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Upcycling of PET Bottles: New Ideas for Resource Cycles in Germany
25.06.2018 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlässigkeit LBF

nachricht Dry landscapes can increase disease transmission
20.06.2018 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Research finds new molecular structures in boron-based nanoclusters

13.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

Algae Have Land Genes

13.07.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>