The ocean is filled with a soup of bacteria and viruses. The animals living in these environments are constantly under assault by pathogens and need to be able to mount an immune response to protect themselves from infection, especially if they have an injury or wound that is openly exposed to the water.
Louis Burnett, professor of biology and director of the Grice Marine Laboratory of the College of Charleston, and Karen Burnett, research associate professor at Grice Marine Laboratory of the College of Charleston, study the effects of low oxygen and high carbon dioxide on organisms’ immune systems. They have found that organisms in these conditions can’t fight off infections as well as animals living in oxygen rich, low carbon dioxide environments.
The Burnetts will be presenting their findings at the Global Change and Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World conference from August 4-7, 2010 in Westminster, Colorado. This conference is in part sponsored by the American Physiological Society (http://www.the-aps.org). The full conference program can be found at http://www.the-aps.org/meetings/aps/comparative/preprogram.htm.
“Our approach is exciting because traditionally physiologists haven’t considered bacteria or disease as a natural environmental barrier, so it’s a pretty open field,” says Louis Burnett.
Apparently, if marine animals are challenged with a pathogen, a large number of their blood cells disappear within a few minutes. The blood cells clump up to attack the pathogen, but also lodge in the gills (the sea critter version of lungs), where the body gets it oxygen. The scientists see evidence that sea animals fighting off infection lower their metabolism, which slows down other important processes like making new proteins.
“Everything we see points to the fact that if an animal that mounts a successful immune response then their gill function and ability to exchange oxygen is reduced by about 40 percent, which is why they seem to be having such problems living in low oxygen conditions,” says Karen Burnett. “If you add high carbon dioxide to that, it gets worse.”
The researchers are now using microarrays to measure changes in gene expression in marine organisms that are exposed to bacteria under low oxygen, high carbon dioxide conditions.
“After exposure to these conditions for only a day, animals at the molecular level have given up in trying to adapt to the situation, and they are going into molecular pathways that indicate cell death,” says Karen Burnett.
The coastal animals the Burnett’s study live in environments where natural levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide fluctuate. Theoretically, these animals are already adapted for varied environments, and yet they still struggle with these changing conditions. It’s alarming that deep-water animals may be much more affected by ocean acidification, since they are not used to the ebb and flow of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.
“Some of the models for how the coastal organisms adapt may help researchers predict how deep water organisms are going to be affected by overall climate change too,” says Louis Burnett.
NOTE TO EDITORS: Dr. Burnett will discuss his findings at the conference Global Change and Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World, sponsored by the American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-aps.org) To arrange an interview with Dr. Burnett, please contact Donna Krupa at 301.634.7209 or firstname.lastname@example.org. To see the full conference program log on to http://www.the-aps.org/meetings/aps/comparative/preprogram.htm.
Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function to create health or disease. The American Physiological Society (www.The-APS.org/press) has been an integral part of this discovery process since it was established in 1887.
Donna Krupa | Newswise Science News
Waste in the water – New purification techniques for healthier aquatic ecosystems
24.07.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
Plenty of habitat for bears in Europe
24.07.2018 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur
What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
25.07.2018 | Event News
16.08.2018 | Life Sciences
16.08.2018 | Earth Sciences
16.08.2018 | Life Sciences